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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (25):
1

an organism that produces its own food using CO2 and other simple inorganic compounds form its environment and energy for the sun or from oxidation of inorganic substances

autotrophs

2

photosynthetic organism that use light as its energy source and carbon dioxide as its carbon source

photoautotrophs

3

an organism that acquires energy and nutrients by eating other organisms or their remains

heterotrophs

4

the first stage of photosynthesis, in which the energy of sunlight is absorbed and converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH

light-dependent reactions

5

the second stage of photosynthesis in which electrons are used as a source of energy to convert inorganic CO2 to an organic form

light-independent reactions/Calvin cycle

6

process in which electrons are used as source of energy to convert inorganic CO2 to an organic form

CO2 fixation

7

the range of wavelengths or frequencies of electromagnetic radiation extending from gamma rays to the longest radio waves and including visible light

electromagnetic spectrum

8

molecule of green pigment that absorbs photons of light in photosynthesis

chlorophylls

9

molecule of yellow-orange pigment by which light is absorbed in photosynthesis

carotenoids

10

curve representing the amount of light absorbed at each wavelength

absorption spectrum

11

graph produced by plotting the effectiveness of light at each wavelength in driving photosynthesis

action spectrum

12

a large complex into which the light-absorbing pigments for photosynthesis are organized with proteins and other molecules

photosystems

13

in photosynthesis, a protein complex in the thylakoid membrane that uses energy absorbed from sunlight to synthesize ATP

photosystem II

14

in photosythesis a protein complex in the thylakoid membrane that uses energy absorbed from sunlight to synthesize NADPH

photosystem I

15

in photosystems, the sites at which light is absorbed and converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis, an aggregate of many chlorophyll pigments that serves as the primary site of absorbing light energy in the form of photons

antenna complex/light-harvesting complex

16

part of photosystems I and II in chloroplasts of plants. in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, it receives light energy absorbed by the antenna complex in the same photsystem

reaction center

17

the synthesis of ATP coupled to the transfer of electrons energized by photons of light

photophosphorylation

18

an electron transport pathway associated with photosystem I in photosynthesis that produces ATP without the synthesis of NADPH

cyclic electron flow

19

an enzyme that catalyzes the key reaction of the Calvin cycle, carbon fixation, in which CO2 combines with RuBP (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate) to form 3-phosphoglycerate

RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco)

20

the partial or full gain of electrons to a substance

reduction

21

a process that metabolizes a by-product of photosynthesis

photorespiration

22

in C4 plants the pathway to fix CO2 into oxaloacetate in mesophyll cells and then produce CO2 for the Calvin cycle in bundle sheath cells

C4 pathway

23

in CAM plant pathway to fix CO2 into oxaloacetate and then produce CO2 for the Calvin cycle both occurring in mesophyll cells but separated by time of day. stands for "crassulacean acid metabolism

CAM pathway

24

a biochemical variation of photsynthesis that was discovered in a member of the plant family Crassulaceae. carbon dioxide is taken up and stored during the night to allow the stomata to remain closed during the daytime, decreasing water loss

crassulacean acid metabolism

25

The conversion of light energy to chemical energy in the form of sugar and other organic molecules

photosynthesis