Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (54):
1

anthropometrics

measurement of people. referred to methods of measuring physical and mental variation in humans

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intelligence

as the ability to think, understand, reason and adapt to or overcome obstacles

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mental age

the average intellectual ability score for children of a specific age

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Stanford-Binet test

test intended to measure innate levels of intelligence

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IQ

calculated by taking a persons mental age, dividing it by his chronological age x 100

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Wechsler adult intelligence scale

used to test adults intelligence

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general ability index

performance on verbal comp and perceptual reasoning

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raven's progressive matrices

intelligence test that is based on pictures, not words, thus making it unaffected by language or cultural background

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stereotype threat

which occurs when negative stereotypes about a group cause group members to under preform on ability tests

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meritocracy

idea that wealth, power, status should depend solely on hardwork and natural ability

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incremental theory

belief that a persons intelligence can be improved with experience and effort

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entity theory

belief that intelligence is a stable trait that is nearly impossible to improve

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which two subjects are females less good at

math and science

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factor analysis

statistical technique that examines correlations between variables to find clusters of related variables or factors

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general intelligence factors (g)

measured by IQ tests, has .50 correlation with high school/ uni grades

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affects of general intelligence factors

total pop, divorced, poverty, incarcerated

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g represents

a person's mental energy, reflecting his belief that some people brains are more powerful

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what is 'S'

parts of children's performance on different academic subjects that don't correlate with one another were called this

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seven primary mental abilities underlying g

1. word fluency
2. verbal comprehension
3. reasoning
4. memory
5.numeric abilities
6. perceptual speed
7. spatial visualization

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triarchic theory of intelligence

theory that divides intelligence into analytical, practical and creative

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analytic

book smarts

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practical

street smarts

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creative

create new ideas

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g split: fluid intelligence

the ease by which we can learn new info and find solutions to unfamiliar problems

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g split: crystallized intelligence

our ability to use our past experience and knowledge we already acquired to complete tasks

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which type of intelligence goes up higher from child to old

crystal

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multiple intelligence's

model claiming that there are nine different forms of intelligence, each independent from the others

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kim peek

challenge the notion of intelligence as general ability

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nine types of intelligence

1. verbal
2. logical
3. visospatial
4. bodily
5. musical
6. interpersonal
7. self/intrapersonal
8. naturalist
9. existential

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females score higher on

verbal, memory, and reading emotions

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males score higher on

visospatial abilities

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gene knowledge studies

involve removing a specific gene and comparing the characteristics of animals with and without that gene

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flynn effect

refers to the steady population level increases in intelligence test scores over time

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video deficit

how young children do not learn very much from info on screens

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genetics effects

IQ

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nootropic substances

substances that are believed to beneficially affect intelligence

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behavioral genomics

have influence small contributions to mental abilities

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trangenic studies

insertion of genetic material info animals- leads mice with cognitive benefits

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more stimulation means

bigger brain

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birth order affects

IQ scores, first child means better score

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methylphenidate

inhibits reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine

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modafinal

inhibits uptake of dompamine

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developmental psychology

the study of physical and psychological chnages commonly associated with the different stages of our life

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cross sectional design

involves measuring groups of people at a single point in time, but that differ in age

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cohort effects of cross sectional design

people who are different ages also developed in different time periods

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longitudinal design

involves measuring the same group of people at different points in time

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sensitive period

needed for development, a window of time during which exposure to a specific type of environment

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attrition

withdrawal of participants from a study over time

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developmental stages

lifespan changes proceed through patterns of stability followed by periods of more rapid transition

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zygote

initial cell formed when the nuclei of egg and sperm fuse

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germinal stage

the first phase of prenatal development, which spans from conception to two weeks

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blastocyst

ball of cells that splits into two groups

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inner blastocyst

fetus

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outer blastocyst

placenta