Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (92):
Where bones interconnect with bones, cartilage, and teeth
amount of movement permitted in a joint
range of motion
the greater the range the _____ stable it is
what are the 3 categories of joints?
Synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis
functional category where the joint is immoble
functional category where the joint has slight movement
functional category where the joint has free movement
what connective tissues connect amphiarthrosis joints??
dense regular or fibrocartilage
what are the 3 structural categories of joints?
fibrous, synovial, cartilaginous
bones connected with dense connective tissue
what are the 3 types of fibrous joints?
gomphosis, sutures, syndesmosis
peg in socket, immovable
what is an example of gomphosis joints?
teeth in alveolar process
interlock edges of bone, synarthrosis
what is an example of sutures?
sutures between the skull
connected with interosseous membrane/ligament, amphiarthrosis
what is an example of syndesmosis?
radioulnar diaphyses, inferior tibiofibular
bone are connected with cartilage
what are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?
synchondrosis and symphysis
bones connected by hyaline cartilage, synarthrosis
what is an example of synchondrosis joints?
costochondral, sternochondral joint of rib one
bones connected by fibrocartilage; amphiarthrosis
what is an example of symphysis joints?
pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs
bones are separated by a joint cavity; diarthrosis
what are the 6 types of synovial joints?
plane (gliding) joint, ball and socket, hinge, pivot, ellipsoid/condylar, saddle
flattened surfaces interact to allow bones to slide across one another over short distances
what is the least mobile type of synovial joint?
Plane/gliding joints allow motion in ____ plane
what are some examples of plane/gliding joints?
acromioclavicular, intercarpal, intertarsal, sacroiliac
joint locks together with convex and concave surfaces articulating
hinge joints allow motion in __ plane
what actions do hinge joints do?
what are some examples of hinge joints?
elbow, knew, ankle, interphalangeal
bone with rounded surface fits into ring formed by ligament and another bone
pivot joints allow motion in __ plane
what action do pivot joints do?
what are some examples of pivot joints?
atlantoaxial, proximal radioulnar
oval articular surface interacts with a depression surface on an opposing bone
what type of action do ellipsoid/condylar joints do?
flexion, extension, circumduction, adduction, abduction
ellipsoid/condylar joints allow motion in __ plane
what are some examples of ellipsoid/condylar joints?
radiocarpal, metacarpophalangeal 2-5, metatarsophalangeal
each articular surface has a convex and concaved portion that nestle together
saddle joints allow motion in __ plane
what types of action do saddle joints do in the thumb?
flexion,extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction
what types of action do saddle joints in sternoclavicular do?
elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, circumduction
round head of one bone sits in a cup shaped surface of opposing bone
ball and socket joint
ball and socket joints allow motion in ___ plane
what types of actions do ball and socket joints do?
flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, rotation
what are some examples of ball and socket joints?
What is an articular/joint capsule made of??
outer layer: fibrous layer
inner layer: synovial membrane
filled with synovial fluid
what is the viscous and oily secretion in the articular cavity composed of?
plasma filtrate and synovial membrane cells
what is the function of the articular cavity?
lubrication, nutrient distribution, shock absorption
fibrous, synovial fluid filled pouches filled with synovial membrane
where are bursa located?
tendons, ligaments, where bones may rub
what is the function of bursa?
reduce friction, shock absorption
adipose connective tissue covered by a synovial membrane
where are fat pads located?
what is the function of fat pads?
fill in spaces created as the joints move
what are the 2 accessory ligaments?
intrinsic and extrinsic
thickens articular capsule
outside and separate from articular capsule
articular surfaces are forced out of position
what can dislocation result in?
damage to articular cartilage, ligament, or joint capsule
what type of joint is the shoulder?
separates articular cavity into two parts
connects sternum to clavicle
connects 1st rib to clavicle
connects acromion to acromial end of clavicle
what types of joint is the acromioclavicular joint?
connects coracoid process to clavicle
What are the articulating structures for glenohumeral joints?
head of humerus and glenoid cavity
fibrocartilage that encircles and covers surface of glenoid cavity
connects coracoid process and acromion
connects coracoid process to head of humerus
what muscles make up the rotator cuff?
supraspinous, infraspinatous, teres minor, subscapularis
what are the articulating structures of the hip?
acetabulum and head of femur
what type of joint is the hip?
ball and socket
fibrocartilage ring that further deepens socket
connects ilium and femur
connects ischium and femur
connects pubis and femur
what articulations make up the knee?
between candelas of tibia and femur
between patella and patellar surface of femur
what type of joint is the knee?
C-shaped fibrocartilage pads on tibia condyles
what is the function of menisci?
stabilize and cushion joints
connects fibula and femur reinforcing the lateral surface of the joint
fibular collateral ligament
connects the tibial and femur reinforcing the medial surface of the joint
tibial collateral ligament
connects posterior of femur to anterior of tibia within the joint
anterior cruciate ligament