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concept of drugs

contemporary meanings refer to:
1) medicinal preparations (by medical professional or self-administed)
2) sunstances taken (at least initially) for the purpose of pleasure)
some sunstances move between 2 cateogires over time


drugs use in canada

cocaine, opium, other drugs widely available as meds in the 19th century
used for almost all aliments from toothache to diahea
addicts often: middle or upper class women
doctors/businessmen accidently addicted
little social addiction to drugs
as doctors became aware of addictions, eased up on prescribing opiates


canada's first widespread panic about drug use

in the 1920's after soliders returned from world war one
influenced by gender, race, and class sterotypes and discrimtion
narratives of drug use in 1920's media fueled panic
also impacted drug legislation and publics perception of drug users


athletes use of drugs

open culture of drug use already present in endurance sports
required help to finish the race
disqaulifiction of "doped athlete" infuriated fans
indicates no moral opposition to drugs in early olympic games


spillover to sport

societal disapproval of recreactional drugs motivated opposition to drug use in sport
as dangers and health riks emerged-increased disapporval
supplements have been used by athletes since the ancient olympic games


everyday drugs

1. caffeine
2. alcohol
3. nicotine


erogenic aids

substances that enhnace work output, particularly as it relates to athletic preformance
include drugs, dietatry supplements, and mechanial aids
common, permitted egogenic aids: vits and min, carb loading


drugs and ergogenic aids

ergogenic aids in sport
-function: enhance athletic preformance
2 types of EA
-legal drugs
-illegal drugs
-nurtirional supplements


banned sunstances and methods

the world anti-doping agency maintains a list of banned sunstances (drugs) and methods (chemical and physical manipulations)
doping does not mean taking a drug, but violating an anti-doping rule


the 1990's- post ben johnson and the dubin inquiry

IOC medical commission attempts to standardize different requirements across sports and countries
resistance from international federations , especially FIFA
blood testing begins in lillehammer 194


the creation of the world anti-doping agency

world conference on doping in sport
produced the lausanne declaration on doping in sport calling for creation of WADA


what does WADA do

1. establish a single list of banned sunstances
2. coordinate standards to collect/analyze samples
3. push for unified drug sanctions
4. promote research
5. coordinate standards for random unannounced testing (RUT) and therapeutic use exemptions


why ban a substance/method

what criteria does WADA set to determine if a substance/method belongs on the banned list
1. enhances preformance
2. causes harm
3. violates the spirit of sport


oxygen transport

WADA code voilation via:
prohibited substance
prohibited method


ways to improve VO2 max

1. train the muscle
2. improve blood circulation
3. improve the capacity of blood to carry oxygen



refers to the precentage of total blood volume consisting of red blood cells
typical female- 37-47%
typical male- 40-54%


ways of increasing hematocrit

1. blood transfusions
2. exogenous stimulation of increased RBC production
3. altitude acclimazation
4. supplementation
5. gene therapy


Eero mantyranta

7 olympic medals
suspected of blood doping
cleared after DNA testing of 200 fam members
20% higher RBC production
up to 50% increase in oxygen carrying capacity in blood