Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (25):
1

Lithosphere

the outermost layer of the Earth, includes the crust and uppermost part of the mantle

2

Magma

a very hot mixture of molten rock and gases, just below the Earth’s surface, that has come from the mantle

3

Lava

hot molten or semi-fluid rock erupted from a volcano or fissure, or solid rock resulting from cooling of this.

4

Native Element

elements found uncombined in the Earth’s crust

5

Crystal

geometrically-shaped substance made up of atoms and molecules arranged in one of seven different shapes. The elements that make up a crystal and the conditions present during the crystal’s growth determine the arrangement of atoms and molecules and the shape of the crystals.

6

Mohs Scale

a scale of hardness used in classifying minerals. It runs from 1 to 10 using a series of reference minerals, and position on the scale depends on ability to scratch minerals rated lower.

7

Igneous Rock

rocks that form from the cooling of lava or magma as it is thrown through the air from a volcanic eruption

8

Extrusive Igneous Rock

igneous rock that forms when lava cools above the Earth’s surface

9

Intrusive Igneous Rock

igneous rock that forms when magma cools below the Earth’s surface

10

Batholith

intrusive rock mass that measures more than 100 kilometres across

11

Erosion

the process of eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents.

12

Sediment

matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid;

13

Floodplain

flat, open land beside a river where sediments are deposited during floods

14

Sedimentary Rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

15

Coal

a sedimentary rock formed from dead plants and animals that were buried before rotting completely

16

Limestone

a sedimentary rock formed from the remains of sea organisms. It consists mainly of calcium carbonate.

17

Conglomerate Rock

sedimentary rock containing large particles of various sizes cemented together

18

Metamorphic Rock

rock formed from another rock that has been under great heat or pressure (or both)

19

Rock Cycle

an idealized cycle of processes undergone by rocks in the earth's crust, involving igneous intrusion, uplift, erosion, transportation, deposition as sedimentary rock, metamorphism, and further melting and igneous intrusion.

20

Mineral Ore

rocks mined to obtain a metal or other chemical within them

21

Open-cut mining

mining that scours out soil and rocks on the surface of the land

22

Underground Mining

mining that uses shafts and tunnels to remove rock from deep below the surface

23

Palaeontologist

a scientist who studies fossils

24

Fossil

any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past

25

Trace Fossil

fossils that provide evidence, such as footprints, that an organism was present when the rock was formed