Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (25):
the outermost layer of the Earth, includes the crust and uppermost part of the mantle
a very hot mixture of molten rock and gases, just below the Earth’s surface, that has come from the mantle
hot molten or semi-fluid rock erupted from a volcano or fissure, or solid rock resulting from cooling of this.
elements found uncombined in the Earth’s crust
geometrically-shaped substance made up of atoms and molecules arranged in one of seven different shapes. The elements that make up a crystal and the conditions present during the crystal’s growth determine the arrangement of atoms and molecules and the shape of the crystals.
a scale of hardness used in classifying minerals. It runs from 1 to 10 using a series of reference minerals, and position on the scale depends on ability to scratch minerals rated lower.
rocks that form from the cooling of lava or magma as it is thrown through the air from a volcanic eruption
Extrusive Igneous Rock
igneous rock that forms when lava cools above the Earth’s surface
Intrusive Igneous Rock
igneous rock that forms when magma cools below the Earth’s surface
intrusive rock mass that measures more than 100 kilometres across
the process of eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents.
matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid;
flat, open land beside a river where sediments are deposited during floods
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
a sedimentary rock formed from dead plants and animals that were buried before rotting completely
a sedimentary rock formed from the remains of sea organisms. It consists mainly of calcium carbonate.
sedimentary rock containing large particles of various sizes cemented together
rock formed from another rock that has been under great heat or pressure (or both)
an idealized cycle of processes undergone by rocks in the earth's crust, involving igneous intrusion, uplift, erosion, transportation, deposition as sedimentary rock, metamorphism, and further melting and igneous intrusion.
rocks mined to obtain a metal or other chemical within them
mining that scours out soil and rocks on the surface of the land
mining that uses shafts and tunnels to remove rock from deep below the surface
a scientist who studies fossils
any remains, impression, or trace of an animal or plant of a former geological age; evidence of life in the past