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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (21):
1

What are actuarial practices?

One appraoch for carrying out risk assessment, which typically involves the collection of pre-specified risk factors (coded according to explicity rules) that are then entered into a statistical model that combines and weights them, producing an overall assessment of risk.

2

What are dynamic risk factors?

One group of factors commonly used in risk assessment. Dynamic risk factors change over time. An example would be impulsivity that could change as a result of taking part in a treatment program). Dynamic risk factors are often categorized as stable dynamic factors and acute dynamic factors.

3

What is a HCR-20?

An example of a structural professional judgment instrument for carrying out risk assessment. Twenty risk factors are coded across 3 domains - historical (static) factors, clinical (dynamic) factors, and risk management factors. Based on patient's combined score across these factors the patient is assigned to a general level of risk - low, moderate, or high.

4

What is a risk assessment?

A concept involving two components: (1) risk prediction - assessing the risk that people will commit violence in the futre, and (2) risk management - dieveloping effective intervention strategies to manage that risk.

5

What is ROC analysis?

Stands for receive operating characteristics analysis. Used as a procedure for measuring the accuracy of risk predictions. The height of the ROC curve, as measured by the area under the curve (AUC), indicates accuracy. It is calculated by plotting the false positive rate as a function of the true positive rate for each possible cut-off score on the scale. An AUC=1.0 indicates perfect accuracy and an AUC=0.50 indicates change accuracy. The advantage of using the AUC as a measure of decision making accuracy is that it is not threshold dependent (i.e., it does not depend on the cut-off score that was chosen by the decision maker to define when an individual will be violent).

6

What are static risk factors?

One group of factors commonly used in risk assessment. Static risk factors are fixed and unchanging. An example would be a history of substance abuse.

7

What is structured professional judgment?

One approach for carrying out risk assessment, which typically involves the collection of pre-specified risk factors while adding in any relevant case specific details. Although the risk factors are specified in advance, how the risk factors are combined into an overall assessment of risk is left to the discretion of the professional.

8

What is a two by two contingency table?

A method for recording the frequency of possible outcomes that can occur when making two alternative decisions, like predicting whether a patient will be violent or not. The decision outcomes included in this table include hits (true positives), false alarms (false positives), misses (false negatives), and correct rejections (true negatives)

9

What are unstructured clinical judgments?

One approach for carrying out risk assessment, which typically involves a clinician using their judgment to determine the overall assessment of risk. This process is done subjectively and it is unclear to determine which risk factors were considered and how they were combined and rated.

10

What is VRAG?

An example of an actuarial technique for carrying out risk assessment. Twelve static risk factors are coded, and based on a patient's combined score across these weighted factors, the patient is assigned to a specific level of risk.

11

_____ courts in Canada have jurisdiction over most criminal and civil matters, whereas ___ courts focus exclusively on matters specified in ____ legislation.

a. Supreme, Provincial, Military
b. Military, Supreme, Provincial
c. Supreme, Federal, Federal
d. federal, Provincial, Provincial
e. Provincial, Federal, Federal

e. Provincial, federal, Federal

12

Marnie was driving home from Carleton and was pulled over by the Ottawa police for speeding. Marnie insisted she was only driving 10km per hour over the speeed limit, but the officer disagreed and wrote her a ticket. Marnie decided she would dispute the chargeds in court. Which level of court would Marnie's case most likely be heard?

a. Provincial court
b. Provincial court of appeals
c. Administrative tribunal
d. Supreme court
e. Military court

a. Provincial court

13

According to your textbook, which of the following contributed to the development of Aboriginal Courts in Canada?

a. Aboriginal overrepresentation within the criminal justice system
b. Legislation of Bill C-41 by the federal government
c. Supreme Court of Canada case, R v. GLADUE (1999)
d. Judges concern over lack of time and expertise to conduct specialized sentencing for Aboriginal offenders
e. All of the above contributed to the development of Aboriginal Courts in Canada

e. All of the above contributed to the development of Aboriginal courts in Canada

14

Gladue reports can be requested by judges in Aboriginal courts Gladue factors included in these reports can include which of the following?

a. Exposure to abuse
b. Attendance at a residential school
c. Loss of culture
d. Substance abuse issues
e. All of the above

e. All of the above

15

Which process involves the victim of a crime, the offender, and members of the community voluntarily meeting in an attempt to restore the imbalance that was caused by a crime?

a. Aboriginal Courts
b. Aboriginal healing lodges
c. Restorative appeals
d. Restorative justice
e. None of the above

d. Restorativejustie

16

Darryl was found guilty in a Canadian court. During sentencing the judge decided that Darryl would serve his prison sentence in the community. He would be required to abide by a specific set of rules for a predetermined length of time. If successfully completed, his prison sentence would be suspended. Which type of sentencing does this represent?

a. Absolute discharge
b. Conditional discharge
c. Restitution
d. Community service
e. Conditional sentence

e. Conditional sentence

17

Sam was found guilty in a Canadian court. However, during sentencing the judge decided that Sam would not be convicted, would not receive a criminal record, and would be released into the community without conditions. Which type of sentencing does this represent?

a. Absolute discharge
b. Conditional discharge
c. restitution
d. Community service
e. Conditional sentence

a. Absolute discharge

18

_____ results from a given judge's inconsistency over occasions in judging the same type of offender or crime, which, for example, can arise from ____.

a. Unsystematic disparity; differences in experience
b. Unsystematic disparity; fluctionations in mood
c. Systematic disparity; differences in personality
d. Systematic disparity; focusing on irrelevant stimuli
e. Unwarranted sentencing disparity: differences in education

b. Unsystematic disparity; fluctuations in mood

19

Courts of appeal in Canada sometimes rely on ____ in the absence of legislated guidelines to accomplish some degree of uniformity in sentencing, which still allowing a judge discretion in making sentencing decisions.

a. Community sentences
b. Sentencing disparities
c. Starting-point sentences
d. Sentencing guidelines
e. Conditional sentences

c. Starting-point sentences

20

According to the review conducted by Gendreau et al. (2001), which of the following sanctions demonstrated a decrease in recidivism rates?

a. Scared straight
b. Electronic monitoring
c. Boot camp
d. Restitution
e. All of the above demonstrated a decrease in recidivism rates

d. Restitution

21

Owen is a convicted offender who has just been granted parole by the Parole Board of Canada. Owen will be residing in a half-way house where he will be allowed to leave each morning to attend work, but is required to return at a specific time each evening. What type of parole has Owen been released on?

a. Temporary absence
b. Day parole
c. Full parole
d. Statutory release
e. Compassionate release

b. Day parole