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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (23):
1

kinase from glycolysis

-phosphofructokinase transfers phosphate from ATP to the opposite end of fructose-6-phosphate converting it Tinto biphosphate
-increases potential energy

2

redox reactions

-transfer of electrons
-oxidation of glucose
-reduction of molecules (NAD+ to NADH and FAD+ to FADH2)

3

substrate level phosphorylation

-occurs during glycolysis and citric acid cycle
-yields 2 ATP
-produces ATP by transferring a phosphate group from an intermediate substrate directly to ADP

4

oxidative phosphorylation

-occurs during the electric transport chain
-yields 25 ATP
-produces ATP by ATP synthase using proton gradient via remix reaction of electron transport chain

5

how NADH stores energy released during glycolysis

-NAD+ accepts an electron and reduces to NADH
-later donates its electrons to the ETC

6

glycolysis

-process that takes place in cytosol of the cell
-begins with mobilization of sugar
-sugar oxidized until 2 molecules of pyruvate produced

7

feedback inhibition of phosphofructokinase

-occurs wen cell recognizes abundance of ATP
-ATP exits high concentration and binds to site of phosphofructokinase
-changes conformation lowering reaction rate at active site

8

regulation of citric acid cycle

-Enzyme that combines acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate to form citrate binds with ATP then shuts down (feedback inhibition)
-NADH interferes and binds to enzyme active site (competitive inhibition)

9

where does glycosides take place

cytosol of cell

10

where does citric acid cycle take place

mitochondrial matrix

11

where does the electron transport chain take place

inner membrane and cristae of mitochondria

12

significance of glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and ETC all taking place in separate locations?

-all can happen at same time
-increases efficiency if ATP production of the cell

13

how is H+ gradient coupled with ATP synthesis

-bc H+ ions move down concentration gradient the flow causes ATP synthase to spin
-conformation changes to catalyze the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP

14

outer mitochondrial membrane

-separates glycolysis from citric acid cycle and electron transport chain

15

inner mitochondrial membrane

-establishes proton gradient
-location for electron transport chain

16

total number of ATPs produced by breakdown of 1 glucose molecule [with and without oxygen present]

with O: 29 ATP
without O: 2 ATP

17

aerobic respiration

-cellular respiration

18

anaerobic respiration

-fermentation

19

purpose of inhaling O2

-O2 is final electron acceptor in ETC
-determines if cell will go through cellular respiration or fermentation

20

purpose of exhaling CO2

-CO2 is byproduct of citric acid cycle
-carbon atoms of glucose molecule are released as CO2

21

how is NAD+ recovered in absence of O2

-through fermentation
-pyruvate (product of glycolysis: accepts electrons from NADH and oxidizes it to NAD+ so glycolysis can occur)
-fungi (yeasts) use alcohol fermentation
-humans use lactic acid fermentation

22

how do fats enter respiration reactions

-when enzymes break down fats to release glycerol
-convert fatty acids into acetyl CoA molecules

23

how do proteins enter respiration reactions

-broken down into amino acids
-enzyme catalyzed reactions remove amino groups