Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

NASM Free ch. 9, 10 Core and Balance > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (61):
1

What is the objective of Core Training?

To uniformly strengthen the deep and superficial muscles that stabilize, align, and move the trunk of the body, especially the abdominals and muscles of the back.

2

What are the 3 systems of the core musculature in sequential order for a core training program.

Local StabilizationSystem,

Global Stabilization System,

Movement System System

3

What is an interesting way to describe the core? What is its definition Describe characteristics of the core in terms of gravity and movement. 

-The structures that make up the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC) including the lumbar spine, the pelvic girdle, abdomen, and the hip joint.

-The body's center of gravity

-WHERE ALL MOVEMENT ORIGINATES

4

Where do the muscles of the LOCAL Stabilization System attach?

What do they do?

How do they accomplish this?

Muscles that attach directly to the vertebrae.

Constantly used for STABILITY and limit excessive compression, shear, and rotational forces BETWEEN SPINE SEGMENTS.

They INCR. INTRA-ABDOMINAL PRESSURE, which creates TENSION in the LUMBAR FASCIA

5

What are the muscles included in the LOCAL Stabilization System?

Transverse Abdominis Internal Obliques Multifidus Pelvic Floor Musculature Diaphragm

6

What is the main twitch type of muscle fibers in the LOCAL Stabilization System? What for? They have a high density of ____. Why?

1. Slow-Twitch (type 1) for endurance 2. High-Density of muscle spindles to aid in proprioception

7

Where do the muscles of the GLOBAL Stabilization System attach?

From the pelvis to the spine

8

What are the muscles included in the Global Stabilization System?

Quadratus Lumborum Psoas Major External Obliques Portions of the Internal Oblique Rectus Abdominis Gluteus Medius Adductor Complex

9

What is the purpose of the GLOBAL Stabilization System?

1. Transfer loads between the upper and lower extremities. 2. Stabilize pelvis to spine 3. Stabilize and eccentrically control the core during functional movements.

10

Where do the muscles of the MOVEMENT System attach?

Spine and/or pelvis to extremities.

11

What are the muscles included in the MOVEMENTSystem?

Lattissimus Dorsi Hip Flexors Hamstring Complex Quadriceps

12

What is the purpose of the MOVEMENT System?

For concentric force and eccentric deceleration during dynamic activities.

13

What does Synergistic Interdependent Functioning mean? How does it relate to the core musculature (3 systems)?

1. Systems work best together rather than separately. 2. Collectively all muscles within each system provide dynamic stabilization and neuromuscular control of the entire core (LPHC).

14

What is the best progression within the three systems for training the core musculature? Why? (use house analogy)

1. Local Stabilization System 2. Global Stabilization System 3. Movement System Work FROM THE INSIDE OUT (like the inner frame and support) * "Build the foundation before the walls in the house."

15

What is the result if movement system of the core is strong and the local stabilization system is weak? What does this lead to in the body? Provide an example.

Forces are not transferred properly (imbalanced kinetic chain) --> compensations, synergistic dominance, and inefficient movements. Example: lunge, squat, or overhead press with excessive spinal extension

16

Chronic Low Back Pain can be attributed to weak muscle and muscle groups within the core. What are the main muscular system that can be responsible? List one muscle outside that group that can contribute.

1. All the Local Muscular System muscles 2. Deep Erector Spinae

17

How is the drawing-in maneuver performed? What does muscle does it engage?

1. Pull the region just below the navel toward the spine and maintain the cervical spine in a neutral position. 2. engaging the transverse abdominis

18

What 3 things does the drawing-in maneuver improve?

1. Posture 2. Muscle Balance 3. Stabilization

19

When performing the drawing-in maneuver, you notice your client's head is protruding forward. Which muscle is overactive? How does it effect the upper cervical spine? What happens to the pelvis? What reflex occurs and what 3 results does that cause?

1. Sternocleidomastoid 2. Extends the upper cervical spine 3. Pelvis rotates anteriorly to realign the eyes 4. Leads to the Pelvo-Ocular Reflex, causing: A. muscle imbalances B. less pelvic stabilization, C. compression in cervical spine

20

Neuromechanical Activition of what two systems working together have been shown to create the most benefit for those with LBP compared with traditional LBP training methods. What type of exercise increase activation of both these systems?

Local Stabilization System Global Stabilization System Core exercises performed in an unstable environment (proprioceptively enriched)

21

How does one activate the GLOBAL Stabilization System AND the LOCAL. Which one activates which? Why is this beneficial?

Bracing-Global Drawing-In Maneuver

-Local benefits LBP more than traditional LBP training methods

22

What is the "bracing maneuver?" What is it also commonly referred to as?

Occurs when you have contracted the ABS, LOW BACK, and BUTTOCK at the same time. "Bearing down"

23

What system does the bracing maneuver focus on and specifically not focus on?

Global Trunk Stability (NOT segmental vertebral stability)

24

List some variables to manipulate to change core exercise training parameters.

1. Planes of Motion 2. Ranges of Motion 3. Types of resistance (Cable, Tubing, Stability Ball, Medicine Ball, BOSU, Kettlebell, Dumbbells, etc) 4. Body Position 5. Duration 6. Speed of Execution 7. Specific, Acute Training Variables (sets, reps, intensity, tempo, frequency)

25

Describe the characteristic of the exercises of Phase 1 of Core STABILIZATION (from OPT) Training? What is the main purpose? How is this accomplished? How long would they traditionally spend at this level?

1. Exercises involve LITTLE MOTION THROUGH SPINE and PELVIS 2. Designed to improve NEUROMUSCULAR EFFICIENCY and INTERVERTEBREAL STABILITY, 3. By focusing on drawing-in and then bracing during the exercises. 4. 4 weeks

26

What kind of exercises could be done during Phase 1 of Core Stabilization Training?

1. Marching 2. Floor Bridge 3. Floor Prone Cobra 4. Prone Iso-Abs (plank)

27

Describe characteristics of the movements during Phases 2, 3, and 4 of Core STRENGTH (from OPT) Training? What is the main purpose? How long would they traditionally spend at this level?

- Exercises have more DYNAMIC, ECCENTRIC (force reduction) and CONCENTRIC (force production) movement OF the SPINE through a FULL ROM, WHILE performing the Activition Techniques (DRAW-IN and BRACE) -Purpose to improve NEUROMUSCULAR EFFICIENCY of entire KINETIC CHAIN - 4 weeks

28

What kind of exercises could be done during Phases 2, 3, and 4 of Core Strength Training?

1. Ball Crunch 2. Back Extensions 3. Reverse Crunch 4. Cable Rotations

29

What are exercised designed to improve during Phase 5 of Core POWER (from OPT) Training? Describe two characteristics of the exercises at this phase.

- Improve the RATE of FORCE production OF the CORE musculature. - exercises DYNAMICALLY STABILIZE and generate force AT MORE FUNCTIONAL SPEEDS.

30

What kind of exercises should be done during Phase 5 of Core Power Training?

1. Rotation Chest Press 2. Medicine Ball (MB) Pullover Throw 3. Front MB Oblique Throw 4. Soccer Throw

31

Instead of striving for absolute strength gains what should be the focus of core programs? What is more important than increasing external resistance and how is it accomplished?

- NEURAL ADAPTATION - Increasing PROPRIOCEPTION - Through MULTISENSORY enviornment and using multiple modalities

32

Phase 1 exercises (core-stabilization training) involve little motion through where? And focus on what movements?

Little motion through the spine and pelvis. Focus on drawing-in and bracing during exercises.

33

What is one example of when a client has demonstrated appropriate intervertebral stability?

When able to maintain the drawing-in position while performing various exercises.

34

What is an example of having appropriate lumbopelvic stability?

When able to perform functional movement patterns (squats, lunges, step-ups, single-leg movements, pressing, pushing etc) WITHOUT EXCESSIVE SPINAL MOTION (flexion, extension, rotation etc.)

35

How many core exercises should be performed in the Stabilization phase? Strength phase? (why?) Power phase? (why?)

Stabilization: 1-4 exercises Strength: 0-4 (for the goal of hypertrophy and maxmimal strength, core may be optional, though recommended) Power: 0-2 (because core exercises are typically performed in the dynamic warm-up portion of this program and core-power exercises are included in the resistance training program, separate core training may not be needed)

36

What is the TEMPO at each core training program phase?

Stabiilization- Slow Strength- Medium Power- As fast as can be controlled

37

Marching

Stabilization Phase

 

Keep abs drawn-in and pelvis neutral

A image thumb
38

Two-Leg Floor Bridge

Stabilization Phase

 

Do not hyperextend the low back by lifting hips too far.

A image thumb
39

Floor Prone Cobra

(which way do thumbs point?)

Stabilization Phase

 

Keep thumbs pointed up

Do not hyperextend low back by coming too high off the floor.

A image thumb
40

Prone Iso-Abs

Alternatives when too difficult?

Stabilization Phase

 

Alternatives:

standard push up position

push up position on bent knees

hands on bench and feet on floor

A image thumb
41

Ball Crunch

Strength phase

 

Keep chin tucked to take stress off neck

Knees at 90 degrees

A image thumb
42

Back Extension

Strength Phase

 

Don't hyper extend low back.

Tuck chin

Retract and depress shoulders

A image thumb
43

Reverse Crunch

Strength Phase

 

Legs 90 degrees

Do not swing legs

A image thumb
44

Cable Rotation

Strength Phase

 

Pivot back leg to achieve triple extension (ankle, knee, hip)

A image thumb
45

Rotation Chest Pass

 

Weight of ball?

Power Phase

 

Ball between 5-10% body weight

Rotate 90 degrees

Pivot back leg

Throw with back arm

A image thumb
46

Ball Medicine Ball Pullover Throw

 

Ball weight?

Power Phase

 

Ball 5-10% of weight

Knees 90 degrees

Toes pointing straight

Allow arms to completely follow through

Make sure proper extensibility of lattissimus dorsi first to decrease low back stress

A image thumb
47

Front Medicine Ball Oblique Throw

Power Phase

 

Feet shoulder width apart

Knees slightly bent

Toes straight ahead

Underhand throw

Scooping motion to catch

A image thumb
48

Soccer Throw

 

Ball weight and type?

Power phase

 

Ball 5-10% of weight

A D-ball (a medicine ball that won't bounce)

Throw close to wall for ball to bounce off of

Allow arms to follow through

A image thumb
49

Q image thumb

Marching

 

Keep abs drawn-in and pelvis neutral

50

Q image thumb

Two-Leg Floor Bridge

 

Keep thumbs pointed up

Do not hyperextend low back by coming too high off the floor.

51

Q image thumb

Floor Prone Cobra

 

Keep thumbs pointed up

Do not hyperextend low back by coming too high off the floor.

52

Q image thumb

Prone Iso-Abs

 

Alternatives:

standard push up position

push up position on bent knees

hands on bench and feet on floor

53

Q image thumb

Ball Crunch

 

Keep chin tucked to take stress off neck

Knees at 90 degrees

54

Q image thumb

Back extension

 

Don't hyper extend low back.

Tuck chin

Retract and depress shoulders

55

Q image thumb

Reverse Crunch

 

Legs 90 degrees

Do not swing legs

56

Q image thumb

Cable Rotation

 

Pivot back leg to achieve triple extension (ankle, knee, hip)

57

Q image thumb

Rotation Chest Pass

 

Ball between 5-10% body weight

Rotate 90 degrees

Pivot back leg

Throw with back arm

58

Q image thumb

Ball Medicine Ball Pull Over Throw

 

Ball 5-10% of weight

Knees 90 degrees

Toes pointing straight

Allow arms to completely follow through

Make sure proper extensibility of lattissimus dorsi first to decrease low back stress

59

Q image thumb

Front Medicine Ball Oblique Throw

 

Feet shoulder width apart

Knees slightly bent

Toes straight ahead

Underhand throw

Scooping motion to catch

60

Q image thumb

Soccer Throw

 

Ball 5-10% of weight

A D-ball (a medicine ball that won't bounce)

Throw close to wall for ball to bounce off of

Allow arms to follow through

61

What does quadruped mean when describing exercises?

On hands and knees