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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (38):
1

Terminal drop

Rapid decline in intellectual abilities preceding death

2

Cumulative deficit hypothesis

Over time negative environments may lower IQ

3

Howard Gardner

Theory of multiple intelligences

4

David Wechsler

Wechsler Scales, WPPSI-II, WISC-IV, WAIS-IV

5

Donald Sternberg

Theory of successful intelligence

6

Convergent thinking

Converging on the best answer to a problem; person wants to know the correct answer

7

Divergent thinking

Coming up with a variety of ideas/solutions to a problem; no single correct answer; orginality, uniqueness

8

Fluid intelligence

Using your mind to actively solve new problems; skills not typically taught; raw information processing power

9

Crystallized intelligence

Knowledge acquired through schooling and life experiences

10

Intelligence quotient (IQ)

Mental age divided by chronological age x 100

11

Development quotient (DQ)

Numerical measure of an infant's performance on an developmental test relative to performance of other infants of the same age

12

Mental age

The level of age-graded problems that a child is able to solve

13

Stereotype threat

Fear that they will be judged to have the qualities of negative stereotypes of an ethnic group

14

Wisdom

Rich factual knowledge about life combined with procedural knowledge such as strategies for giving advice and handling conflicts

15

Cumulative deficit hypothesis

Impoverished environments inhibit intellectual growth and these effects accumulate over time

16

Savant syndrome

Extraordinary talent in a particular area but otherwise intellectually challenged.

17

Define intelligence according to the psychometric approach. What are the goals of this approach?

The psychometric approach is where intelligence is a trait or a set of traits that characterizes some people to a greater extent than others.
Goals - identify the traits precisely; measure them so that differences among individuals can be describe.

18

Describe Howard Gardner's conceptualization of intelligence including his 8 intelligences.

Rejects the idea that a single IQ score is a meaningful measure and that there are intelligences that cannot be measured by standardized testing. There are 8 distinct intelligences.
1. Spatial
2. naturalist
3. musical
4. logical/mathematical
5. existential
6. interpersonal
7. bodily kinestethic
8. linguisitic
9. intrapersonal

19

Describe the three components of Sternberg's triarchic theory and discuss the fourth that was added later.

1. Practical - varies from one sociocultural to the next; street smarts; adapting to the environment you are in; selecting environments in which you can success; shaping the environment to your strengths
2. Creative - response to novelty; response to a novel task; involves creating, inventing, discovering, imaging
3. Analytic - focuses on information processing skills; thinking critically; must consider the context in which they perform and their strategies

4. Successful intelligence - being able to establish and achieve reasonable goals; optimize strengths and weaknesses, adapt to environment; use creative, analytical and practical.

20

Explain why IQ scores and creativity scores do not correlate well.

They measure two different types of thinking - divergent thinking and convergent thinking.

21

Explain the poor correlation between DQ scores in infancy and later IQ.

Infant tests and IQ tests tap qualitatively different kinds of abilities. Infant tests focus on sensory and motor skills while IQ tests focus on more abstract abilties - verbal reasoning, concept formation, problem solving.

22

Describe the infant behaviors that are best connected to later intelligent behaviors.

Speed of habitation - how fast the infant loses interest
Preference for novelty - infant prefers a new stimulus
Fast reaction time

23

Describe the Flynn effect and factors accounting for it

Flynn effect is that IQ scores has increased 3 points per decade in the 20th century. Factors accounting for this include better economic conditions, improved nutrition and living conditions, reduction of diseases, better and longer access to education.

24

Is creativity or intelligence more stable during adolescence?

Intelligence is more stable. As the child enters adolescence, creativity is put on hold (Cramond, et al 2005) while the adolescent focuses on achieving formal operations, better information processing skills.

25

What is most likely to influence declines in old age?

Poor health and drugs used to treat health issues.
Unstimulating lifestyle

26

Describe the research on neuroplasticity in older adults.

Non-use of intellectual skills will lead to decline in old age. Plasticity of the brain allows a person to regain those skills through cognitive training.

27

Describe wisdom and its attributes

Wisdom - having a vast storage of factual knowledge about life combined with procedural knowledge to give advice and handle conflicts.
Attributes include:
knowledge of life
prosocial values
self-understanding
acknowledgement of uncertainty
emotional balance
tolerance
openness
sense of humor

28

Discuss bias in testing

Cultural bias leading to confusion about the test (instructions, language issues); IQ tests have white middle class flavor

29

Motivational factors in testing bias include

Anxious or resistance to test examiner being of a different ethnic background; stereotype threat

30

Genetic factors in testing bias include:

There is lots of debate but research says there is no direct evidence to support genetic factors.

31

Environmental factors in testing bias include:

Need an intellectually stimulating environment with involved responsive parents. Poverty affects intellectual performance.

32

What is Piaget's approach to cognitive development?

Don't compare the thought of a child with the thought of an adult. Modes of thought change qualitatively with age.

33

What is Vgotsky's approach to cognitive development?

Importance of culturally transmitted modes of thinking and interactions with others.

34

What is the information processing approach to cognitive development?

Helps researchers understand and explain why the young child cannot remember as much information or solve problems as effectively as adults.

35

What is the psychometric approach to cognitive development?

Look at the range of tasks that the mind can be applied, recognize distinct mental abilities that each person consistently displays in greater or lesser amounts.

36

What is Sternberg's approach to cognitive development?

Look at creative and practical intelligence as well

37

What is Gardner's approach to cognitive development?

Different tests rather than a single IQ score

38

Discuss the Schai, et all findings related to changes in intellectual functioning as people age.

A sequential study was done to determine changes of IQ with age. Subjects 22-70. Tested for verbal meaning, spatial ability, reasoning, numerical ability and word fluency. Testing 7 years later and repeated at regular intervals.
Findings:
When a person is born has influence on intellectual functioning - cohort/generational differences.
Recently born cohorts tended to outperform older generations.
Different generations have an edge in different areas of intellectual performance.
Confirmed the Flynn effect - kids born today look forward to better intellectual functioning in old age than their grandparents.
Fluid intelligence declines earlier and more steeply than crystallized intelligence.
Declines in intellectual abilities are not universal.