Chapter 9 Cell Cycle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Cell Cycle Deck (42):
1

Cell cycle

Set of stages that takes place between eukaryotic cell division and resulting daughter cells dividing

2

Interphase

Most of the cell cycle is spent here. Constists of G1, S, and G2

3

G1 stage

"Growth". Cell grows in size and increases the number of organelles

4

S stage

DNA synthesis or replication

5

Chromatid

Double helix

6

Sister chromatids

Two identical chromatids

7

G2 stage

Cell synthesizes the proteins that will assist cell division

8

M stage

Includes mitosis and cytokinesis.

9

What stages are in the cell cycle

G1, S, G2 and M

10

Cyclins

Stop signs, signaling proteins

11

Apoptosis

POP, cell suicide

12

Somatic cells

The body cells that did not go through meiosis to become sperm of egg

13

How much DNA is in a human cell

Atleast 2 meters

14

Euchromatin

Loosely cooled DNA

15

Heterochromatin

Highly compact form of the chromosome

16

Chromatin

DNA in cells that are not actively dividing

17

Chromosomes

Tightly coiled and condensed DNA in cells that are dividing

18

"Di"ploid
What is a diploid

Two copies of each chromosome

19

What is a haploid

One copy of each chromosome

20

Are the cells in our body haploid or diploid?

Almost all are diploid
Only exception is sperm cells, they are haploid

21

Centrome

Region where sister chromatids are held together

22

Kinetichore

Protein complex around centromere

23

What are the phases of mitosis?

Phrophase
ProMetaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
******PPMAT******

24

Phrophase

Nucleolus disappears

Nuclear envelope starts to develop

Spindle begins to assemble

25

Prometaphase

Kinetichores become visible

Sister chromatids attach

26

Metaphase

Centromeres are aligned

M checkpoint! Cell cycle cannot progress until chromosomes are:
-attached to spindle fibers
-aligned at the metaphase plate

27

Anaphase

Sister chromatids separate

Cytokenesis begins

Cleavage furrow forms

28

Telophase

Spindles disappear

Nuclear envelope forms around daughter cells

29

Cytokinesis

Division of cytoplasm

30

Cytokinesis in animal cells?

Cleavage furrow

31

Cytokinesis in plant cells?

No cleavage furrow, cell wall doesn't allow it

32

What is cancer

When the cell cycle goes wrong

Cellular growth disorder when cells divide uncontrollably

33

Benign cancer

Abnormal cell growth

34

Malignant cancer

Cancerous, can spread

35

Cancer cells go through metastis and angiogenesis, what are they?

Metastasis: ability to spread to other areas of the body

Angiogenesis: formation of new blood vessels to supply tumor with oxygen and nutrients

36

What causes cancer?

Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes

37

Proto-oncogenes

Genes that normally promise cell

"Gas pedal" non stop growth

38

Tumor suppressor gene

Brakes, gene that normally inhibit the cell cycle

39

Unicellular organisms use cell division for what?

Asexual reproduction, making an entire organism!

40

Multicellular organisms use cell division for what?

Part of growth, development and repair

41

Metastasis

The process by which a cancer travels through the blood and invades new tissues

42

Angiogenesis

Formation of new blood vessels to support growth of a tumor