Flashcards in Chapter 9: Constitutionalism: The Dutch Republic and England Deck (26)
Dutch Republic: Political, Religious, Economic
Political: Dutch republic was made of 7 independent states ruled by wealthy merchants, not absolutists like most rest of Europe.
Religious: The Dutch republic was largely Calvinist, and very religiously tolerant to every religion. This religious toleration stimulated great commerce.
Economic: Dutch Republic experienced a period of heightened economic prosperity, being the leading commercial power in 17th century. Was majorly involved in the ship building industry, banking, and the lucrative spice industry.
Unlike the rest of Baroque art, Dutch art did not focus on religious, Catholic Church concepts. Instead, Dutch liked art relating to themselves, their lifestyle, family, land, etc.
English Society in the 17th Century
- Middle class was growing.
- Creation of joint-stock companies.
- Land gentry in the House of Commons.
- English middle class, unlike the French, were willing to pay taxes, which took a lot of the burden off of the peasants.
- Most of England were Calvinist, thought the Puritans wanted to reform the Anglican Church.
Issues in 17th Century England
- House of Commons (merchants, lawyers, etc) wanted to preserve their traditional rights and a louder voice in politics.
- Stuart Kings believed in the divine right of kings, and did not want Parliament interfering.
- Staurts wanted the Episcopal Church organization, but the Puritans wanted the Presbyterian set up.
James believed Kings ruled under the divine right of kings, and were at the level of Gods themselves. He was also very anti-Presbyterian system, because he thought it would take away all royal power. Also had bad relationship with Parliament, though he always needed money.
Very similar to his father, James I. Believed heavily in the divine right of kings, supported Anglican Church, and always needed money from Parliament. Signed the Petition of Right.
Petition of Right
Signed by Charles I because he was in desperate need of money. Two provisions stated that Parliament must approve all taxes and nobody can be imprisoned without due process of law.
Scots vs. Charles I
Charles encouraged William Laud to reform the Church, to which Laud tried to impose the English Prayer Book on the Scottish Presbyterian Church, which failed. The Scots then mobilized their own army and occupied N. England to defend their own religion.
Charles I was desperate for money to fight the Scots, so he reluctantly called Parliament to session. Parliament then executed Laud and limited royal power.
Nobles, royalty, rich people who remained loyal to the king. Favored a strong monarchy and the Episcopal Church system.
Normal class people, Puritans, etc who wanted a Presbyterian system for the Church. Favored a less powerful king, and the inclusion of a Parliament.
A Puritan roundhead that lead a group of Protestants against Charles I, and later executed him. Then took control of the government with the Commonwealth, which later became a military dictatorship. Cromwell ruled until his death, which Charles II took over.
Cromwell's Foreign Policy
- Cromwell crushed a royalist uprising in Ireland, and replaced all Catholic landholders with Protestant ones.
- Passed the Navigation Act, which was meant to give England greater control over its American colonies.
- Waged a series of wars that weakened Dutch.
Cromwell's Domestic Policy
- Had a strict moral code that was similar to Geneva's.
- Opposed other radical groups such as the Levellers and the Quakers.
A radical group that believed in universal manhood suffrage, and a constitution that promised equal rights to all.
A radical group that included women to preach at church meetings, and rejected religious hierarchies.
Ruled directly after Cromwell. Restored the monarchy, Church of England, and Parliament. Because he had no children, his brother James II became the next King.
Whigs and Tories
James II's succession divided Parliament into two opposing groups: Whigs and Tories.
Whigs: Was skeptical of the Catholics, and wanted to exclude James II from succeeding the throne.
Tories: Loyal to the monarchy and royals, and thus supportive of James II's succession to the throne.
Succeeded after his brother Charles II.
William and Mary
Mary was James II's eldest daughter that was raised a Protestant. She married William of Orange (Dutch). Parliament asked these two to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism.
Bill of Rights, 1689
William and Mary signed this document to succeed the throne.
1. Parliament was allowed free debate.
2. King needs Parliament consent to tax.
3. King needs Parliament consent to create laws.
4. Parliament needs its own consent to dissolve.
5. Parliament must meet up for frequent sessions.
6. Nobody could be imprisoned without legal process and consent.
7. Ruler must not be Roman Catholic.
The bloodless overthrow of James II in exchange for William and Mary.
Consequences of the Glorious Revolution
1. English rejected the theory of divine right of kings.
2. The Glorious Revolution placed clear limitations on the monarchy.
3. England became a constitutional monarchy.
Wrote the Leviathan, and had a very pessimistic view of human nature. People were depicted as power-hungry and selfish, who needed government to protect against anarchy.
Rejected Hobbes view of humans, and portrayed humans as creatures of good will and reason. People had "natural rights:" life, liberty, property. Government existed to protect people's natural rights, and if they failed and lost the people's trust, the people could replace the ruler.