Chapter 9 - Hearing & Language Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Hearing & Language Deck (19):
1

Discuss the 3 characteristics of sound:

Physical vs. Perception

2

Physical vs. perception

Physical:
Frequency- hz. Waves per second.

Amplitude/intensity- mV. Peak to peak.

Timbre

Perception:
Pitch

Loudness- dB

Quality

3

Discuss the main structures of the ear and their functions:

•Outter ear
Pinna- flap on outside of the ear, acts as funnel, collects sound wave info.

External auditory canal-transmit sound from pinna to eardrum

•Middle ear
Tympanic

4

Pinna

Flap on outside of the ear, acts as funnel, collects sound wave info.

Outter ear

5

External auditory canal

Transmit sound from pinna to eardrum.

Outter ear

6

Tympanic membrane

Ear drum. Thin stretched membrane. Vibration transmits sound energy to the ossicles, causing them to move with the vibrations.

Middle ear

7

Ossicles

Hammer, anvil, stirrup

8

Eustachian tube

??

9

Oval window

The stirrup rests here.
A thin flexible membrane on the face of the vestibular canal.

10

Cochlea (inner ear)

A fluid filled, snail like structure that contains the organ of Corti.

Where the auditory stimulus is converted into neural impulses.

11

Organ of Corti

Consists of specialized hair cells, which are receptors for auditory stimulation. Cochlear fluid bends hair cells opening potassium and calcium channels and depolarizing the hair cell membrane.

The hair cells translate vibrations into electrical impulses that are carried to the brain by sensory nerves.

12

Outter hair cells

Amplification and sound sharpening.

13

Inner hair cells

Encode sound into impulses.

14

Discuss the brain areas involved in processing sound from start to finish:

Auditory cranial nerve >>>
Brainstem >>>
Inferior colliculi (location of sounds) >>>
Thalamus (sensory relay) >>>
Temporal lobe (auditory cortex) >>>
Parietal lobe (“where” dorsal stream) >>>
Frontal lobe (“what” ventral stream).

15

Topographical organization:

Hairs next to each other, travel to neurons that are also right next to each other.

16

Discuss the brain areas involved in language:

Broca’s area (frontal lobe)
Wernicke’s area (temporal lobe)p

17

Broca’s Aphasia

Non-fluency
Anomia
Inarticulate
Agrammatic

Language production

18

Wernicke’s Aphasia

Fluent and articulate, but meaningless word salad.
Unable to understand language in written or spoken forms.

Language comprehension

19

Dyslexia

Impairment in reading.