Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Hearing & Language Deck (19):
Discuss the 3 characteristics of sound:
Physical vs. Perception
Physical vs. perception
Frequency- hz. Waves per second.
Amplitude/intensity- mV. Peak to peak.
Discuss the main structures of the ear and their functions:
Pinna- flap on outside of the ear, acts as funnel, collects sound wave info.
External auditory canal-transmit sound from pinna to eardrum
Flap on outside of the ear, acts as funnel, collects sound wave info.
External auditory canal
Transmit sound from pinna to eardrum.
Ear drum. Thin stretched membrane. Vibration transmits sound energy to the ossicles, causing them to move with the vibrations.
Hammer, anvil, stirrup
The stirrup rests here.
A thin flexible membrane on the face of the vestibular canal.
Cochlea (inner ear)
A fluid filled, snail like structure that contains the organ of Corti.
Where the auditory stimulus is converted into neural impulses.
Organ of Corti
Consists of specialized hair cells, which are receptors for auditory stimulation. Cochlear fluid bends hair cells opening potassium and calcium channels and depolarizing the hair cell membrane.
The hair cells translate vibrations into electrical impulses that are carried to the brain by sensory nerves.
Outter hair cells
Amplification and sound sharpening.
Inner hair cells
Encode sound into impulses.
Discuss the brain areas involved in processing sound from start to finish:
Auditory cranial nerve >>>
Inferior colliculi (location of sounds) >>>
Thalamus (sensory relay) >>>
Temporal lobe (auditory cortex) >>>
Parietal lobe (“where” dorsal stream) >>>
Frontal lobe (“what” ventral stream).
Hairs next to each other, travel to neurons that are also right next to each other.
Discuss the brain areas involved in language:
Broca’s area (frontal lobe)
Wernicke’s area (temporal lobe)p
Fluent and articulate, but meaningless word salad.
Unable to understand language in written or spoken forms.