Chapter 9 - How Do We Sense, Perceive, and See the World? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - How Do We Sense, Perceive, and See the World? Deck (97):
1

The patient D. B., who became blind in the left half of his visual field after surgery:
A) regained his sight after a long recovery.
B) could tell you where a flashing light was located in his blind area.
C) was totally blind to the right half of the midline and never showed recovery.
D) filled in the scotoma left by the surgery at the cortical level.

B) could tell you where a flashing light was located in his blind area.

2

The part of the sensory world that stimulates a neuron is called the neuron’s:
A) sweet spot.
B) response region.
C) receptive field.
D) active region.

C) receptive field.

3

Optic flow tells us:
A) how fast we are going.
B) whether we are going in a straight line or up or down.
C) whether we are moving or the object is moving.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct.

4

Auditory flow gives us information about:
A) the source of sounds in the environment.
B) the frequency of a sound.
C) the timbre of a sound.
D) changes in pitch.

A) the source of sounds in the environment.

5

Photoreceptors for black and white light are______ than color photoreceptors.
A) less sensitive
B) more sensitive
C) smaller
D) fewer in number

B) more sensitive

6

A ______ is a neural-spatial representation of areas of the sensory world perceived by a sensory organ.
A) sensory blueprint
B) sensory layout
C) receptor grid
D) topographic map

D) topographic map

7

The light-sensitive surface in the back of the eye is called the:
A) sclera.
B) lens.
C) iris.
D) retina.

D) retina

8

The retina:
A) has receptors that face the incoming light.
B) receives an image that is upside down but not backward.
C) receives an image that is upside down and backward.
D) has receptors that face the incoming light and receives an image that is upside down but not
backward.

C) receives an image that is upside down and backward.

9

If we wear glasses that turn the image of the world upside down, the brain:
A) will immediately compensate and turn the world right side up again.
B) will turn the world so it is right side up again after only a few hours.
C) after several days will suddenly turn the world so it is right side up again.
D) cannot compensate, but while the world is upside down we very rapidly adapt our behavior.

C) after several days will suddenly turn the world so it is right side up again

10

Visible light is:
A) 100 to 700 nanometers.
B) 400 to 700 nanometers.
C) 300 to 800 nanometers.
D) 500 to 1000 nanometers.

B) 400 to 700 nanometers

11

Difficulty seeing things that are not close to you (i.e., nearsightedness) is:
A) hyperopia
B) myopia.
C) presbyopia.
D) maculitis.

B) myopia

12

The clinical term for farsightedness is:
A) hyperopia.
B) myopia.
C) fovea.
D) maculitis.

A) hyperopia

13

______ is caused by weakening of the elasticity of the lens in people over 50 years of age.
A) Hyperopia
B) Myopia
C) Presbyopia
D) Macular degeneration

C) Presbyopia

14

The white part that forms the eyeball is called the:
A) cornea.
B) sclera.
C) retina.
D) choroid layer.

B) sclera

15

Which of the following is not true of rates of myopia in children?
A) Children spend more time doing schoolwork, which encourages the use of short-range vision
and strains the eye muscles.
B) Children who watch more than 2 hours of television a day have higher rates of myopia.
C) Children who live in sunnier climates have lower rates of myopia.
D) Spending too much time indoors increases rates of myopia.

B) Children who watch more than 2 hours of television a day have higher rates of myopia

16

Light is bent first by the ______ before entering the pupil.
A) lens
B) cornea
C) sclera
D) fovea

B) cornea

17

The colored part of the eye is called the:
A) iris.
B) lens.
C) cornea.
D) sclera

A) iris

18

People with myopia often have eyeballs that are ______, whereas people with hyperopia often have eyeballs that are _____.
A) too short; too long
B) too large; too small
C) too long; too short
D) too small; too large

C) too long; too short

19

Photoreceptors are mostly densely packed in:
A) the fovea.
B) peripheral vision.
C) the retina.
D) the optic disc.

A) the fovea

20

The portion of the eye that has the highest visual acuity is called the:
A) retina.
B) fovea.
C) magnification zone.
D) lens.

B) fovea

21

The blind spot in the retina is where the:
A) blood vessels enter and leave the eye.
B) axons of the retinal ganglion cells leave the eye.
C) axons of the bipolar cells leave the eye.
D) blood vessels enter and leave the eye and the axons of the retinal ganglion cells leave the eye

D) blood vessels enter and leave the eye and the axons of the retinal ganglion cells leave the eye

22

The optic disc is also known as the:
A) fovea.
B) yellow spot (macula lutea).
C) blind spot.
D) iris.

C) blind spot

23

Swelling of the optic disc is known clinically as:
A) macular degeneration.
B) presbyopia.
C) retinopathy.
D) papilloedema.

D) papilloedema.

24

Optic neuritis:
A) swells the blind spot.
B) causes loss of vision.
C) is probably the most common neurologic visual disorder.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct.

25

Rods are to cones as:
A) day is to night.
B) black and white is to color.
C) night is to day.
D) night is to day and black and white is to color.

D) night is to day and black and white is to color

26

There is(are) ______ type(s) of cone cell.
A) two
B) three
C) four
D) one

B) three

27

Rods are found primarily in ______, whereas cones are found primarily in ______.
A) the fovea; peripheral vision
B) the retina; the optic disc
C) the optic disc; the fovea
D) peripheral vision; the fovea

D) peripheral vision; the fovea

28

A wavelength of 559 nanometers is our representation of:
A) orange.
B) green.
C) yellow.
D) blue.

A) orange

29

A wavelength of 419 nanometers is our representation of:
A) red.
B) green.
C) yellow.
D) blue.

D) blue

30

Rods have a peak sensitivity at:
A) 250 nanometers.
B) 419 nanometers.
C) 559 nanometers.
D) 496 nanometers.

D) 496 nanometers

31

Between ages 20 and 40 people’s ability to see in dim light decreases by approximately:
A) 50 percent.
B) 25 percent.
C) 75 percent.
D) 60 percent.

A) 50 percent

32

Which of the color-sensitive photoreceptors are fewest in number?
A) yellow cones
B) red cones
C) blue cones
D) green cones
Diff: Medium

C) blue cones

33

Which of the following is the correct order of neuron layers in the retina from outermost to innermost?
A) bipolar cell layer, ganglion cell layer, photoreceptor layer
B) photoreceptor layer, ganglion cell layer, bipolar cell layer
C) ganglion cell layer, bipolar cell layer, photoreceptor layer
D) photoreceptor layer, bipolar cell layer, ganglion cell layer

C) ganglion cell layer, bipolar cell layer, photoreceptor layer

34

Which of the following is not a type of retinal neuron?
A) bipolar cells
B) horizontal cells
C) amacrine cells
D) perpendicular cells

D) perpendicular cells

35

Horizontal cells in the eye link the:
A) bipolar cells to the retinal ganglion cells.
B) receptors to the bipolar cells.
C) bipolar cells to the amacrine cells.
D) receptors to the amacrine cells.

B) receptors to the bipolar cells

36

Amacrine cells link:
A) bipolar cells with horizontal cells.
B) horizontal cells with photoreceptors.
C) photo receptors with retinal ganglion cells.
D) bipolar cells with retinal ganglion cells

D) bipolar cells with retinal ganglion cells

37

Parvocellular cells:
A) primarily receive their input from rods.
B) are sensitive to light but not color.
C) primarily receive their input from cones.
D) receive their input from rods and cones.

C) primarily receive their input from cones

38

Magnocellular cells:
A) primarily receive inputs from rods.
B) are insensitive to color.
C) have low visual acuity.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct

39

Retinal ganglion cells form the:
A) fovea.
B) optic disc.
C) lateral geniculate nucleus.
D) optic nerve.

D) optic nerve

40

In the optic chiasm, information from the ______ retinas cross, whereas information from the ______ retinas stay on the same side.
A) nasal; temporal
B) central; peripheral
C) temporal; nasal
D) peripheral; central

A) nasal; temporal

41

The right visual field is composed of the:
A) nasal retinas of each eye.
B) temporal retinas of each eye.
C) nasal retina of the right eye and the temporal retina of the left eye.
D) temporal retina of the right eye and the nasal retina of the left eye.

C) nasal retina of the right eye and the temporal retina of the left eye

42

Cutting the optic nerve of the right eye prior to reaching the optic chiasm will result in loss of vision in:
A) the right visual field.
B) the left visual field.
C) half of each visual field.
D) the two nasal fields.

C) half of each visual field

43

The pathway from the eyes to the brain is organized as follows:
A) The right eye goes to the left hemisphere, while the left eye goes to the right hemisphere.
B) The right half of each eye goes to the left hemisphere.
C) The right half of each eye goes to the right hemisphere.
D) The left half of the right eye and the right half of the left eye go to the left hemisphere.

C) The right half of each eye goes to the right hemisphere

44

A second main visual pathway (in addition to the geniculostriate system) is organized as follows:
A) retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, pulvinar, striate cortex, other visual areas
B) retina, superior colliculus, pulvinar, striate cortex, other visual areas
C) retina, superior colliculus, pulvinar, other visual areas
D) retina, pulvinar, superior colliculus, other visual areas

C) retina, superior colliculus, pulvinar, other visual areas

45

The ______ is the primary visual relay nucleus in the thalamus.
A) medial geniculate nucleus
B) lateral geniculate nucleus
C) ventral pulvinar nucleus
D) mediodorsal nucleus

B) lateral geniculate nucleus

46

The geniculostriate system is as follows:
A) retina, lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, layer IV of the visual cortex
B) retina, lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, layer VI of the visual cortex
C) retina, superior colliculus, thalamus, layer IV of the visual cortex
D) retina, superior colliculus, thalamus, layer VI of the visual cortex

A) retina, lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, layer IV of the visual cortex

47

The superior colliculus sends its most direct connections to the:
A) lateral geniculate nucleus.
B) pulvinar.
C) striate cortex.
D) parietal cortex.

B) pulvinar

48

Photosensitive retinal ganglion cells form the:
A) geniculostriate visual pathway.
B) tectopulvinar visual pathway.
C) retinohypothalamic tract.
D) All of the answers are correct.

C) retinohypothalamic tract

49

The ventral stream projects to the:
A) occipital lobe.
B) parietal lobe.
C) temporal lobe.
D) limbic lobe.

C) temporal lobe

50

The dorsal stream projects to the:
A) occipital lobe.
B) parietal lobe.
C) temporal lobe.
D) limbic lobe.

B) parietal lobe

51

The six layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) receive which of the following inputs from the eyes?
A) layers 2, 4, and 6 from the ipsilateral eye
B) layers 2, 4, and 6 from the contralateral eye
C) layers 1, 4, and 6 from the contralateral eye
D) layers 1, 4, and 6 from the ipsilateral eye

C) layers 1, 4, and 6 from the contralateral eye

52

Magnocellular cells send their projections to layers ______ and parvocellular neurons send their projections to layers ______ of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
A) 1 to 3; 4 to 6
B) 4 to 6; 1 to 3
C) 1 and 2; 3 to 6
D) 3 to 6; 1 and 2

C) 1 and 2; 3 to 6

53

Parvocellular cells send their projections to layer ______ of visual cortex.
A) IVCa
B) IVCb
C) IVCd
D) V

B) IVCb

54

Magnocellular cells send their projections to layer ______ of visual cortex.
A) IVCa
B) IVCb
C) IVCd
D) V

A) IVCa

55

The tectopulvinar pathway is especially sensitive to:
A) fine details.
B) movement.
C) color.
D) texture.

B) movement

56

The superior colliculus plays an important role in:
A) object recognition.
B) color perception.
C) circadian rhythms.
D) orienting responses.

D) orienting responses

57

The ____ pulvinar sends projections to the temporal lobe, whereas the ______ pulvinar sends projections to the parietal lobe.
A) dorsal; ventral
B) medial; lateral
C) ventral; dorsal
D) lateral; medial

D) lateral; medial

58

Patient D. B. was able to locate spots of light presented in his blind field even though he could not see them because:
A) his geniculostriate pathway was intact.
B) his retinohypothalamic pathway was still intact.
C) his tectopulvinar pathway was still intact.
D) his dorsal stream was damaged.

C) his tectopulvinar pathway was still intact

59

Which of the following sequences is correct?
A) rods, cones, bipolar, ganglion, lateral geniculate, simple cortical cells
B) rods, cones, ganglion, bipolar, lateral geniculate, simple cortical cells
C) rods, cones, bipolar, ganglion, simple cortical cells, lateral geniculate
D) rods, cones, ganglion, lateral geniculate, bipolar, simple cortical cells

A) rods, cones, bipolar, ganglion, lateral geniculate, simple cortical cells

60

The primary visual cortex is also known as:
A) V1.
B) V2.
C) V3.
D) V4.

A) V1

61

Cells in the blobs found in the visual cortex are involved in:
A) form perception.
B) motion perception.
C) color perception.
D) form and color perception.

C) color perception

62

Cells in the interblob regions in the visual cortex are important for:
A) form perception.
B) motion perception.
C) color perception.
D) form and motion perception.

D) form and motion perception

63

In area V2 the thin stripes carry information about ______, whereas thick stripes carry information about _____.
A) color; form
B) form; motion
C) motion; color
D) color; motion

D) color; motion

64

The ventral stream is important for ______, whereas the dorsal stream is important for _____.
A) object identification; control of movement
B) control of movement; control of language
C) control of language; object identification
D) control of movement; object identification

B) control of movement; control of language

65

Area ______ controls eye movements, whereas area ______ controls visually guided grasping.
A) LIP; FFA
B) AIP; LIP
C) PPA; AIP
D) LIP; AIP

D) LIP; AIP

66

Since his recent stroke Roger has had trouble controlling his eye movements. In addition, when he reaches out to pick up objects, he often misses them. Roger most likely has damage to his:
A) ventral stream in the temporal lobe.
B) dorsal stream in the parietal lobe.
C) dorsal stream in the temporal lobe.
D) ventral stream in the parietal lobe.

D) ventral stream in the parietal lobe

67

You are a researcher interested in understanding how single neurons might play a role in coding the identity of different faces. To examine this you plan to do single unit recordings in monkeys. To ensure best chances of success you decide to place your recording electrodes in area:
A) FFA
B) PPA
C) MT
D) V4

A) FFA

68

The receptive field of a lateral geniculate cell is:
A) larger than the receptive field of a retinal ganglion cell.
B) the same shape as the receptive field of a retinal ganglion cell.
C) composed of on-centers and off-surrounds or off-centers and on-surrounds.
D) All of the answers are correct.

D) All of the answers are correct

69

Visual information from the lower portion of the visual field is coded in the:
A) upper portion of V1.
B) lower portion of V1.
C) anterior portion of V1.
D) posterior portion of V1.

A) upper portion of V1

70

In the visual cortex the fovea has:
A) less representation than the periphery because the fovea has fewer cells on the retina.
B) the same representation on the cortex as the periphery.
C) more representation on the cortex than the periphery even though it has fewer cells in the
retina.
D) more representation on the cortex because the fovea has more cells than the periphery.

C) more representation on the cortex than the periphery even though it has fewer cells in the
retina

71

The corpus callosum:
A) connects the medial but not the lateral portions of the visual fields.
B) connects the lateral but not the medial portions of the visual fields.
C) connects the entire visual fields from the two hemispheres.
D) does not connect the two visual fields but does connect the parietal and frontal lobes.

A) connects the medial but not the lateral portions of the visual fields

72

Luminance contrast begins at the ______ cell level.
A) lateral geniculate
B) ganglion
C) simple cortical
D) complex cortical

B) ganglion

73

On-center cells:
A) are excited by light that falls across their entire receptive field.
B) are excited by light that falls in the periphery of their receptive field.
C) are inhibited by light that falls in the center of their receptive field.
D) are excited by light that falls in the center of their receptive field.

D) are excited by light that falls in the center of their receptive field

74

Retinal ganglion cells are very active when their receptive fields process:
A) uniformly bright surfaces.
B) uniformly dark surfaces.
C) the edge between a light surface and a dark surface.
D) dimly illuminated surfaces.

C) the edge between a light surface and a dark surface

75

Orientation detection is first coded by:
A) the lateral geniculate cells.
B) simple cortical cells.
C) complex cortical cells.
D) hypercomplex cortical cells.

B) simple cortical cells

76

Cells that respond to a moving bar of light in a specific orientation are called:
A) lateral geniculate cells.
B) simple cortical cells.
C) complex cortical cells.
D) hypercomplex cortical cells.

C) complex cortical cells

77

Cells that respond to moving bars and have a strong inhibitory area at one end of the receptive field are called:
A) lateral geniculate cells.
B) simple cortical cells.
C) complex cortical cells.
D) hypercomplex cortical cells.

D) hypercomplex cortical cells

78

Ocular dominance columns:
A) respond to lines in the same orientation.
B) respond to lines in slightly different orientations.
C) receive input from each eye.
D) None of the answers is correct.

C) receive input from each eye

79

Cells in the temporal lobe have been found to be sensitive to:
A) faces.
B) size.
C) color.
D) faces, size, and color

D) faces, size, and color

80

The trichromatic theory of color vision is associated with the:
A) retina.
B) lateral geniculate.
C) striate cortex.
D) temporal lobe.

A) retina

81

In order to be able to see color you need at least:
A) three types of cones.
B) two types of cones.
C) one type of cone.
D) four types of cones.

B) two types of cones

82

The incidence of partial lack of one of the cones in the male population is:
A) 5 percent.
B) 7 percent.
C) 10 percent.
D) 12 percent.

A) 5 percent

83

Someone who lacks red cones and is red-green color blind has:
A) tritanopia.
B) protanopia.
C) deuteranopia.
D) rhodanopsia.

B) protanopia

84

Opponent-process color coding begins in:
A) V1.
B) the lateral geniculate nucleus.
C) cones.
D) retinal ganglion cells.

B) the lateral geniculate nucleus

85

A spot of green light presented entirely within the center of a red (on-center)–green (off-surround) color opponent retinal ganglion cell would result in:
A) a strong response (i.e., an increase in firing).
B) a weak response (i.e., a decrease in firing).
C) a very strong response (i.e., a large increase in firing).
D) no response (i.e., no firing at all).

B) a weak response (i.e., a decrease in firing)

86

Which visual cortical region mediates color constancy?
A) V1
B) V2
C) V3
D) V4

D) V4

87

Cells in the dorsal stream are sensitive to:
A) faces.
B) anesthetics.
C) movement.
D) anesthetics and movement.

D) anesthetics and movement

88

Monocular blindness can occur following damage to:
A) the retina in one eye.
B) the optic nerve in one eye.
C) half of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
D) either the retina or the optic nerve in one eye.

D) either the retina or the optic nerve in one eye

89

Allen is 84 years old and recently had a stroke that damaged the lower (inferior) portion of his calcarine fissure in the right hemisphere. This resulted in:
A) a left homonymous hemianopia.
B) a right upper visual field quadrantanopia.
C) a left upper visual field quadrantanopia.
D) a left lower visual field quadrantanopia.

C) a left upper visual field quadrantanopia

90

Homonymous hemianopia occurs when:
A) the optic nerve is cut behind the eye.
B) the optic chiasm is cut.
C) the lateral geniculate is cut.
D) the optic nerve and the lateral geniculate are cut.

C) the lateral geniculate is cut

91

Small blind spots in the visual field are called:
A) hemianopias.
B) scotomas.
C) nystagmus.
D) agnosias.

B) scotomas.

92

A person with visual-form agnosia:
A) cannot see objects in the visual field.
B) can see the object and tell you what it does but cannot name it.
C) can see the object, but cannot tell you what it does and cannot name it.
D) None of the answers is correct.

C) can see the object, but cannot tell you what it does and cannot name it

93

Which of the following is not one of the symptoms of visual-form agnosia in patient D. F.?
A) an inability to recognize objects
B) an inability to copy drawings of objects
C) an inability to draw objects from memory
D) an inability to determine the orientation of an object

C) an inability to draw objects from memory

94

The visual-form agnosia patient D. F. could not ______, but she could still ______.
A) identify objects; grasp objects appropriately
B) identify objects; draw objects accurately
C) grasp objects appropriately; identify objects
D) draw objects accurately; recognize objects

A) identify objects; grasp objects appropriately

95

Shaping of the fingers to pick up an object is a:
A) visually guided conscious act.
B) nonvisually guided conscious act.
C) nonvisually guided unconscious act.
D) visually guided unconscious act.

D) visually guided unconscious act

96

After lesions to V5, L. M. could no longer:
A) read.
B) grasp objects.
C) detect movement.
D) recognize objects.

C) detect movement

97

Patients described as having optic ataxia could not:
A) make accurate movements toward their body.
B) make visually guided movements.
C) walk.
D) make accurate movements toward their body or make visually guided movements.

B) make visually guided movements