Chapter 9 Joints (Articulations) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Joints (Articulations) Deck (237):
1

Define Articulations (Joints)

site of bone-to-bone connection

2

If the joint is very strong, how is it's R.O.M?
(Range of motion)

minimal to no R.O.M.

3

The stronger the joint, the ____ the range of motion

less

4

What is the name for the individual bones that you look at in lab that are not connected?

disarticulated bones

5

How many different synovial joints are there?

6

6

Name the two different classifications of joints.

* Structural Classification
* Functional Classification

7

Which classification of a joint is based on R.O.M. of a joint and anatomical structure?

Functional Classification

8

Where would you find a ligament?

bone-to-bone

9

Which classification of a joint is based on the anatomical organization of the joint?

Structural Classification

10

In Structural Classifications, is the ROM considered?

No

11

When there are no sutures seen and there is a fusion of bones ( for example the epiphyseal line or the fusion of the frontal bones), which structural classification is this?

Bony Fusion or Bony Joint
* Synostosis

12

List the 4 different structural classifications of a joint.

1) Bony Fusion or Bony Joint
2) Fibrous
3) Cartilaginous
4) Synovial

13

Name the Bony Fusion that is an immovable joint (No Movement) with no joint cavity?

Synostosis

14

Sutures are found under the Fibrous Structural Classification. What connective tissue are sutures made up of?

Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue

15

Are sutures very strong or very weak?

very strong (no R.O.M.)

16

Name the joint that binds the teeth to bony sockets in the maxillae and mandible.

Gomphosis

17

Are Gomphosis joints found anywhere other than the mouth in the body?

no, they are unique to teeth

18

What are Fibrous Joints made of?

Connective Tissue

19

How is a ligament formed?

The outer fibrous layer of the periosteum of two bones comes together

20

Name the type of fibrous joint that is bones connected by a ligament where the length of the dense fibrous c.t. is longer
(example: tibiofibular joint)

Syndesmosis

21

What do we say when referring to the degree of movement?

Range of Motion (R.O.M.)

22

Are Interosseous Membranes considered fibrous joints?

yes

23

What is an Interosseous membrane?

sheet of dense irregular C.T. (all coming from the periosteum's outer layers coming together)

24

Between which bones would we find Interosseous Membrane?

Between the Tibia and Fibula and the Radius and Ulna

25

Name the two joint types under the Cartilaginous classification.

* Synchondrosis
* Symphysis

26

What is Symphysis?

Bones separated by a pad of fibrocartilage

27

What word would describe a rigid, hyaline cartilage bridge between 2 articulating bones?

Synchondrosis

28

Which type of joint is the only one with a joint cavity?

Synovial

29

What is the name for the fibrous connective tissue that makes up the Gomphosis?

Periodontal Ligament

30

The Periodontal Ligament is a super strong ligament.
True or False?

true

31

What is the Anterior Tibiofibular Ligament an example of?

Syndesmosis

32

What type of joint is the Symphysis Pubis and the intervertebral discs of the vertebrae considered.

Symphysis- Cartilaginous

33

Is there any movement at a suture site?

very slight movement

34

Can you regenerate bone that you destroy in your mouth?

no, there is no way to regenerate it

35

Does the Periodontal Ligament have any range of motion?

no

36

List the 3 Functional Classifications

* Synarthrosis
* Amphiarthrosis
* Diarthrosis

37

Which of the 3 functional classifications of joints has the widest ROM?

Diarthrosis

38

Which of the 3 functional classifications is an immovable joint (No ROM)?

Synarthrosis

39

Which of the 3 functional classifications of joints is slightly movable?

Amphiarthrosis

40

What is another name for Diarthrotic joints or Diarthrosis?

Synovial Joints

41

The Diarthrotic joint (Synovial joint) is the weakest relative to the other two classifications of joints.
true or false?

true

42

A Synovial joint is freely moving.
true or false?

true

43

The intercarpal joints of the hand are considered Biaxial joints.
true or false?

true

44

Name the extremely strong type of joint that is located where movement between bones must be prevented.

Synarthrosis
(no movement)

45

What is another name for a fibrous membrane?

fibrous capsule

46

When referring to a muscle fiber, what is minnie talking about?

a Muscle cell

47

Name the 4 planes of movement associated with Diarthosis

* Monoaxial
* Biaxial
* Triaxial
* Multiaxial

48

What plane of movement does the shoulder joint have?

multiaxial

49

What is the rigid, cartilaginous bridge between the ends of the first pair of vertebrosternal ribs and the manubrium of the Sternum called

Synchondrosis

50

What is the name of the synarthrotic (non-moving) joint that is found under the Fibrous structural category, that is located between the bones of the skull only?

A suture

51

Name the synarthrosis that binds the teeth to bony sockets in the maxillae and mandible?

a Gomphosis
( hint: Gums)

52

What is the name for the fibrous connection between a tooth and it's socket called?

periodontal ligament

53

How much movement does the functional category of amphiarthrosis have?

little movement.
between synarthrosis and diarthrosis

54

An amphiarthrosis is much stronger than a diarthrosis (a freely-moving joint).
True or false

true

55

The articulating bones of an amphiarthrosis are connected by collagen fibers or _________.

cartilage

56

Where are synovial joints typically located?

at the ends of long bones

57

Give two examples of where you would have a monaxial synovial joint.

* elbow
* Ankle

58

What does it mean to be a monaxial synovial joint?

movement in one plane

59

What does it mean to be a biaxial synovial joint?

movement in two planes

60

Give examples of two places on the body where you would have biaxial synovial joints.

* Ribs
* Wrist

61

What does it mean to be a triaxial synovial joint?

movement in three planes

62

Give two examples of places on the body that have triaxial synovial joints.

* shoulder
* hips

63

How many distinguishing features do all synovial joints have?

4

64

Name all 4 distinguishing features of synovial joints.

1. Articular Cartilage
2. Articular Capsule (Joint Capsule)
3. Joint Cavity (Synovial Cavity)
4. Reinforcing Accessory Structures

65

The Articular Cartilage of the synovial joint is which type of cartilage?

Hyaline

66

Is the Articular Cartilage of the synovial joints covered by the perichondrium?

no

67

The Articular Capsule (joint capsule) is unique to synovial joints.
true or false?

true

68

What is the name for the smooth inner lining of the Articular capsule (Joint capsule) that is composed of areolar C.T. and elastic fibers covered by incomplete synoviocytes layer?

synovial membrane

69

Name the 6 types of Synovial joints.

1. Plane (Gliding) Joint
2. Hinge Joint
3. Pivot Joint
4. Condylar Joint
5. Saddle Joint
6. Ball-and-socket Joint

70

Which joint is the only type of joint that has a joint cavity?

synovial joint

71

What is the joint cavity (synovial cavity) enclosed by?

Articular Capsule

72

The Joint Cavity only has a small amount (a thin film) of synovial fluid in it, is it still considered a fluid-filled cavity?

yes

73

The Articular Capsule (Joint Capsule) is continuous with the _________ of the articulating bones.

periostea

74

The synovial fluid of the Joint Cavity resembles interstitial fluid but contains a high concentration of _____________.

proteoglycans

75

What type of cell is responsible for secreting the proteoglycans found in the synovial fluid of the joint cavity?

fibroblasts

76

List the 3 primary functions of the Joint Cavity.

* Lubrication
* Nutrient Distribution
* Shock Absorption

77

What does the joint cavity need to keep the synovial fluid from getting too thick?

movement

78

Other than proteoglycans, what would you find a lot of in the synovial fluid of the Joint Cavity?

lots of water

79

What fluid is an egg-white like viscous consistency?

synovial fluid

80

What is the main role of synovial fluid?

to reduce friction between the articular cartilage of synovial joints

81

What is weeping lubrication?

the release and absorption of synovial fluid when pressure is applied and released

82

Where are the blood vessels found when referring to the components of the synovial membrane?

the areolar C. T.

83

Weeping lubrication assists in the absorption of nutrients for the joints and the expelling of waste.
true or fasle

true

84

What is the charge of the hyaline cartilage between articulating bones?

negative
(so it can take in and expel water)

85

What 4 things are found in the cushion-like (Dr. Scholls) hyaline cartilage between articulating bones with the synovial fluid other than water?

* GAGs
* Hyaluronic Acid
* Proteoglycans
* negative charge

86

What are the pads of cartilage and fat, ligaments, tendons, and bursae considered?

Reinforcing Accessory Structures

87

What acts as a cushioning/packing material for the joint?

Cartilage and Fat Pads

88

An articular disc or meniscus is composed of what?

fibrocartilage

89

A meniscus may subdivide a synovial cavity, __________ flow of synovial fluid.

channeling

90

Do cartilage and fat pads help distribute weight?

yes

91

Name the 2 Broad types of Ligaments

* Intrinsic Ligaments
* Extrinsic Ligaments

92

What type of Ligament is part of the Joint Capsule?

Intrinsic Ligament

93

What type of Ligament is NOT part of the Joint Capsule?

Extrinsic Ligament

94

Name the two types of Extrinsic Ligaments.
(both are separate from the joint capsule)

* Intracapsular Ligaments
* Extracapsular Ligaments

95

Which type of specific Extrinsic Ligament would the ACL be?

Intracapsular Ligament
(found within but not part of)

96

Which type of specific Extrinsic Ligament would the MCL (medial tibial collateral ligament) be?

Extracapsular Ligament
(completely outside)

97

What is the name for when a ligament is stretched, some collagen fibers are torn, but ligament is intact and joint not damaged?

sprain

98

Once you've stretched a ligament too much, will it go back to normal?

no
(like taffy)

99

What % of stretch can you get before a ligament snaps?

6%

100

What is another name for a Tendon Sheath?

Synovial Sheath

101

Does a Bursa have an outer fibrous dense c.t. lined by synovial membrane?

yes

102

Name the small, flattened, fluid-filled pockets, found commonly where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, and bones rub together.

Bursa (Bursae (pl.) )

103

What is the name for elongated bursa that wrap completely around a tendon that protects all sides as they slide back and forth?

Tendon Sheath ( synovial sheath)

104

What is the medical word for inflammation of Bursa.
("water on the knee")

Bursitis

105

What is a bursa sac made up of?

Synovial Membrane

106

If they can't find a resolution for Bursitis, what may need to happen to the knee?

It may need to be drained

107

Bursa contain a fluid SIMILAR to synovial fluid.
true or false?

true

108

When you lock your knees, all the ligaments get really tight and the ______ (______) __________ ________ twists which can potentially cause the ligaments to tear.

Medial (Tibial) Collateral Ligament

109

What does cruciate mean?

crossing over

110

Name the Tibial ligament that is connected to the medial meniscus.

Medial (Tibial) Collateral Ligament
(MCL)

111

If a Tendon is for bone to muscle, a Ligament is for ____ __ ____.

Bone to Bone

112

Can a Bursa be connected or separated from the joint cavity?

yes

113

Does a Bursa or Tendon Sheath provide extra compression/extra cushion that helps the joint have an extra tight fit?

yes

114

What 4 things can cause Bursitis?

* Excessive friction
* Infection
* Arthritis
* Direct Trauma

115

What do tendons passing across or around a joint do for it?

stabilizes the joint

116

Are Tendons considered part of the joint?

no

117

What determines what movements are possible at a joint?

structure and shape of articular surface

118

When the articular surface of a joint is large and fits snug together or when the socket is deep, what does this do for the stability of the joint?

It improves it
(example: hip)

119

Can Hormones influence the Stability and ROM of Synovial joints?

yes

120

For most joints, the ______ _______ that cross the joint are the most important stabilizing factor.

muscle tendons

121

Muscle Tone is extremely important in reinforcing the shoulder and knee joints, and the ______ of the foot.

arches

122

How does muscle tone affect movement of a joint?

it restricts it

123

The point at which one body surface contacts another may _____ mobility.

limit

124

Can extended periods of nonuse of a joint reduce the ROM?

yes

125

Are the nerves that supply a joint, the same nerves that supply the skeletal muscle that moves the joint?

yes

126

What are the Articular capsule and the ligaments of synovial joints richly supplied with, that monitor joint position and help to maintain muscle tone?

sensory nerve endings

127

Do Synovial joints have blood vessels?

yes, found in Areolar C.T.
they mostly supply the synovial membrane

128

What is the name for a partial dislocation of a synovial joint?

Subluxation

129

What is a Luxation?

Dislocation

130

What type of injury to a synovial joint would damage the articular cartilage, ligaments and the joint capsule? A Dislocation or a Subluxation

Dislocation

131

Name the 3 types of articular movements.
( acted out in class, hands and pencil)

* Gliding (Linear) Movement
* Angular Movement
* Rotation Movement

132

Name the articular movement that pivots at the point of articulation.

Angular Movement

133

What type of movement all happens along either a horizontal or vertical plane?

Gliding (Linear) Movement

134

What type of articular movement is like a spinning top, with no change in angle?

Rotation Movement

135

When talking about Rotation Movement, are we talking about 360 degree rotation or partial rotation?

partial rotation
(not the exorcist)

136

What type of movement is Circumduction ?

A special type of Angular movement
(pencil tip stays stationary while the shaft moves in a conical pattern to complete a circle)

137

What is it called when the angle of the shaft remains unchanged as the shaft spins around it's longitudinal axis?

Rotation

138

What type of movement occurs with articulating Carpal bones, between Tarsal bones and between the Clavicles and Sternum?

Gliding (Linear) Movement

139

Which type of articular movement is occurring when two opposing surfaces slide past one another?

Gliding (Linear) Movement

140

What happens to the angle between articulating bones with Flexion?
(along the sagittal plane)

angle decreases

141

What happens to the angle between articulating bones with Extension?
(along the sagittal plane)

angle increases

142

When in anatomical position, all the major joints of the axial and appendicular skeleton are at full _________.
(except for ankle joint)

Extension

143

What is it called when there is extension past the anatomical position?
(greater than 180 degrees)

Hyperextension

144

What three things make hyperextension impossible for many joints?

* ligaments
* bony processes
* soft tissue

145

Can you hyperextend the knee joint?

No

146

Are there synovial joints between the carpals of the hand?

yes

147

Name the 3 types of Angular movements that are considered Sagittal Plane movements

* Flexion
* Extension
* Hyperextension

148

What is the only exception to Angular movements of the Sagittal Plane?

Lateral Flexion

149

Your Intervertebral joints can be utilized during Lateral Flexion.
true or false?

true

150

Name the 2 types of movement that happen along the Coronal Plane.

* Abduction
* Adduction

151

Define Abduction

Moving away from the midline of the body in the coronal plane

152

Define Adduction

Moving towards the midline in frontal or coronal plane
(Back to anatomical position

153

If you move your arm in a loop and your arm does not rotate, which type of movement is this?

Circumduction

154

When a limb rotates away from the axis, what type of rotation is this?

Lateral Rotation (outward rotation)

155

When a limb rotates toward the axis, what type of rotation is this?

Medial Rotation (inward rotation)

156

When dealing with the head, you can only have left or right rotation.
true or false?

true

157

What is the name for the joints that allow our heads to rotate back and forth?

Atlanto-axial joints

158

What type of unusual movement occurs when you twist the soles of the feet medially (toward midline)?

Inversion

159

Which type of unusual movement occurs when you twist the soles of your feet laterally (away from midline)?

Eversion

160

What is the specific name for flexing at the ankle (lifting toes)?

Dorsiflexion

161

What is the specific name for extension at the ankle (pointing toes)?

Plantar Flexion

162

What is Opposition?

Thumb movement toward fingers or palm (grasping)

163

What is the Opposite of Opposition?

Reposition

164

What is the word for pushing forward (moving anteriorly)
and the word for pulling back?

Protraction and Retraction

165

Define Elevation

Moves in superior direction (up)

166

What is the word for moving in the inferior direction (down)?

Depression

167

When your palms are facing forward (anatomical position)

Supination

168

When your hands are down or palms are facing back, what is it called

Pronation

169

Which joints can make your palm face either front or back?

Radioulnar joints

170

What is another name for a Nonaxial Plane?

Translational

171

Intercarpal joints of the wrists, Intertarsal joints, and claviculosternal joints are all specifically which type of Nonaxial joints?

Plane (Gliding) Joints

172

Name the two types of movement that can be Monaxial (Uniaxial)

Either Angular or Rotation movement

173

What is the name for movement along 2 axes?

Biaxial

174

Name the 2 specific types of Biaxial joints

* Condylar Joints
* Saddle Joints

175

Which type of movement plane means multiaxial, has movement along three axes, and has Angular AND Rotational movement?

Triaxial

176

Name the specific types of joints that are Triaxial

Ball-and-socket Joints

177

Which one of the 6 synovial joint types would the knee joint, elbow joint, ankle joint, and Interphalangeal joint be?

Hinge Joint
(Angular movement in one axis)

178

Which one of the 6 synovial joint types would be the one that is slight nonaxial and pertains to the Intercarpal and Intertarsal joints, and the Acromioclavicular and claviculosternal joints?

Gliding Joint

179

What type of synovial joint is the Atlanto-axial joint and the Proximal radio-ulnar joint?

Pivot Joint

180

Which of the 6 synovial joints is the Ellipsoidal Joint?

Condylar/Condyloid Joint

181

Do the Condylar Joints and the Saddle Joints have biaxial movement?

yes

182

The Radiocarpal joints, Metacarpophalangeal joints 2-5, and the Metatarsophalangeal joints are all examples of which Synovial joint type?

Condylar Joint

183

Which type of synovial joint is the First carpometacarpal joint (by the Metacarpal of the thumb)?

Saddle Joint

184

A Ball-and-socket joint includes all combinations of angular (including circumduction) and rotational movements.
True or false?

true

185

What type of synovial joints are the shoulder joint and hip joint?

Ball-and-socket joints

186

Does rotation take place with the Condylar Joint?

No

187

What is another name for the Saddle Joint?

Sellaris joint

188

Name the Synovial joint that has concave-convex articulation permitting angular movement around two axes (including limited circumduction), but not rotation

Saddle Joint

189

Which Joint in the body has the widest ROM of all the joints?

Shoulder Joint

190

What is another name for the Shoulder Joint?

Glenohumeral Joint

191

Because the Shoulder joint has the widest ROM, that means that it is the least stable or _______.

weakest
(easily dislocated)

192

What is the medical term for the socket of the shoulder joint?

Glenoid Labrum

193

Name the 2 processes of the Shoulder Joint
(parts on scapula)

* Acromion (clavicle) Process
* Coracoid (scapula) Process

194

Is the Glenoid Fossa a deep fossa?

No

195

Where is the shoulder joint found?

between the head of humerus and the glenoid cavity of scapula

196

Which of our synovial joints did Minnie say was like a "golf ball on a tee"?

Shoulder joint
(head of Humerus barely articulates with Glenoid Fossa)

197

The shoulder joint is a ball and socket joint, also categoizes as a Diarthrotic joint. What does Diarthrotic mean?

freely moving joint,
synovial joint

198

Name the 5 Shoulder Ligaments
(4 we learned to identify in lab)

* Coraco-acromial
* Coracoclavicular
* Acromioclavicular
* Glenohumeral
* Coracohumeral *

199

What is being referred to when they say Rotator Cuff?

Shoulder Muscles

200

Name the 4 shoulder muscles, the first two are Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus

* Subscapularis
* Teres minor
* Supraspinatus
* Infraspinatus

201

Which has more range of motion (ROM) and is a weaker joint, the shoulder joint or the hip joint?

Shoulder joint

202

What is considered the "socket" of the ball-and-socket joint that is the hip joint?

Acetabulum

203

Is the hip joint a diarthrotic joint?

yes, multiaxial
wide ROM

204

What is another name for the Hip Joint?

Coxal Joint

205

What is considered the "Ball" in the ball-and-socket joint that is the Hip joint?

Head of Femur

206

Name the five Ligaments of the Hip Joint

1. Iliofemoral
2. Pubofemoral
3. Ischiofemoral
4. Transverse Acetabular
5. Ligamentum teres

207

What type of joint is the Knee joint?

A complicated Hinge Joint

208

The Knee Joint transfers weight from the Femur to the _____.

Tibia

209

How many articulations of the Knee Joint are there?

two femur-tibia articulations

210

What are the Medial and Lateral Menisci of the Knee composed of?

fibrocartilage pads

211

Which of the 7 ligaments of the Knee joint is on the Anterior surface?

Patellar Ligament (Tendon)

212

Popliteal is the medical word for the back of the knee. What 2 of the 7 Knee Joint Ligaments are found Posterior?

2 Popliteal Ligaments

213

Name the two ligaments of the Knee that can be found Anterior and Posterior and are found inside the joint capsule.

* Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
* Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)

214

Name the last 2 ligaments found medial and lateral on the outsides of the knee
(hint: one connects to the Medial Meniscus)

* Lateral Fibular Collateral Ligament
* Medial Tibial Collateral Ligament

215

Name the two parts of bone at the end of the Femur that articulate with the top of the Tibia bone

Medial and Lateral Condyle

216

What is the general term for pain and stiffness of joints?

Rheumatism

217

What is the word that encompasses all Rheumatic diseases that affect synovial joints that always involves damage to the articular cartilages?

Arthritis

218

What is considered the "wear and tear" arthritis since it generally affects people 60 or older?

Osteoarthritis (OA)

219

What type of Arthritis affects 25% of Women and 15% of Men over the age of 60 in the U.S.?

Osteoarthritis

220

Degenerative Arthritis and Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD) are other names for what?

Osteoarthritis (OA)

221

Is Osteoarthritis considered symmetrical?
(if one knee has it does the other knee usually have it too?)

No
Osteoarthritis is assymetrical

222

With Osteoarthritis, what once was hyaline cartilage gets replaced with Bony Spurts, what is this called?

Bone Hypertrophy
(overgrowth of bone)

223

Is the Cartilage of joints being destroyed in OA?

yes

224

What areas of the body are most commonly affected by OA?

* fingers
* Cervical and Lumbar joints
* knees
* hips

225

What type of disease is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)?

Autoimmune disease

226

Is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) considered symmetrical or asymmetrical?

symmetrical
(if it happens on one side it happens on the other)

227

Does RA affect men more or women more?
(3x more than other gender)

women 3x more than men

228

RA usually occurs between the ages of 40 and 50 but can occur at any age.
true or false?

true

229

What happens to the synovial membrane when you have RA?

It becomes inflamed

230

If left untreated, RA will grow worse and you will eventually lose the joint because it will fuse together and become all ____.

bone

231

What is the word for an inflamed synovial membrane?

Pannus

232

With RA there is not only an inflamed synovial membrane but also a break down of bone.
true or false?

true

233

What is another name for Gouty Arthritis?
(has to do with what it does to structure)

Crystal Arthritis

234

What is another name for the bi-product Urea?

Uric Acid or calcium salts

235

What type of Arthritis has a strong genetic disposition, is more common in men and typically affects a single joint (often the big toe)?

Gouty Arthritis (Crystal Arthritis)

236

Crystals over-produce in the synovial fluid and these crystals are gout. What are they shaped like that causes a stabbing pain?

Needle-like

237

Alcohol and Cabbage both contain a lot of what, that causes gouty arthritis to flare up?

Uric Acid