Chapter 9 Language and Communication Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Language and Communication Deck (26):
1

What is Phonemes ?

smallest units of sound recognizable as speech rather than random noise

2

What is Phonological rules ?

rules for how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds

3

What is Morphemes ?

smallest meaningful units of language

4

What is content ?

Things/events (cat, dog, take)

5

What is function ?

grammatical functions and time (and, but, or when)

6

What is Morphological rules ?

how morphemes can be combined to form words

7

What is Syntactical rules ?

How words can be combined to form phrases/ sentences

8

What is surface structure?

how a sentence is worded

9

What are three characteristics of language development

Children learn language at a rapid rate (6-7 new words every day)
Children make few errors when learning to speak
Children's passive mastery is better than active mastery understand language better than speak

10

10 - 12 months
18 months

utter first words
speak 50 words, understand much more, learn nouns before verbs

11

Starting in school ?
Fifth grade ?
fast mapping

10,000 words
40,000 words
word to a concept after expose enable fast learning

12

College?
24 months
3 years
4-5 years

200,000 words
two-word sentences (telegraphic speech); more milk, throw ball
As they grow tend to overgeneralize grammar rules (add extra et to ran)
3 years: complete sentence
4-5 years: language acquisition processes are complete

13

Theories of language development

behaviorist, nativist and interactionist

14

What is Behaviorist ?

Learn to talk through reinforcement, shaping, extinction and imitation
Criticism?
Parents don't teach grammatical rules: force a context of speech not grammar
Children generation more grammatical sentences than they ever hear (are learning w/o reinforcement )
Children overgeneralize grammar which parents wouldn't reinforce

15

What is Nativist ?

- Inmate biological capacity - language acquisition device (LAD)
- Much evidence to suggest language capacity are built into the brain (eg Genie and primitive language skills)
Criticism?
- Genetic dysphasia: inability to learn grammatical structure of language despite normal intelligence
Explain why, but not how language develop

16

What is Interactionist ?

Innate ability to acquire language coupled with social interaction to develop language
Brain capacities + environment

17

What is Broca's aphasia ?

understand language but have difficulty with complex grammar, difficulty with speech production, Ah Monday uh, Casey, Park

18

What is Wernicke's aphasia ?

produce meaningless grammatical speech; difficulty comprehending language; feel very welll. In other words, I don't know how

19

Evidence for right cerebral hemisphere

Right hemi shows capacity for processing meaning
Damage to the right hemi = problems with language comprehension
Right hemi: activation during language tasks
Removal of left hemisphere still allows recovery of language abilities

20

Bilingualism

Benefit of exerting executive control to suppress the language they don't want to use
Benefit of delayed onset of Alzheimer's disease
Cost of smaller vocabulary and delayed processing than monolinguals

21

What is linguistic relatively hypothesis ?

language shapes the nature of thought

22

What does language influence ?

color processing and concept of time

23

English

spatial terms; looking forward to it

24

Mandarin

vertical spatial; looking up to it

25

Necessary condition

something must be true of the object to prove it belongs to category; four legs/tail

26

Sufficient condition

something that, if true of the object, proves it belongs to the categories, German Shepard is sufficient to belong to dog category