Flashcards in Chapter 9 Language and Communication Deck (26):
What is Phonemes ?
smallest units of sound recognizable as speech rather than random noise
What is Phonological rules ?
rules for how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds
What is Morphemes ?
smallest meaningful units of language
What is content ?
Things/events (cat, dog, take)
What is function ?
grammatical functions and time (and, but, or when)
What is Morphological rules ?
how morphemes can be combined to form words
What is Syntactical rules ?
How words can be combined to form phrases/ sentences
What is surface structure?
how a sentence is worded
What are three characteristics of language development
Children learn language at a rapid rate (6-7 new words every day)
Children make few errors when learning to speak
Children's passive mastery is better than active mastery understand language better than speak
10 - 12 months
utter first words
speak 50 words, understand much more, learn nouns before verbs
Starting in school ?
Fifth grade ?
word to a concept after expose enable fast learning
two-word sentences (telegraphic speech); more milk, throw ball
As they grow tend to overgeneralize grammar rules (add extra et to ran)
3 years: complete sentence
4-5 years: language acquisition processes are complete
Theories of language development
behaviorist, nativist and interactionist
What is Behaviorist ?
Learn to talk through reinforcement, shaping, extinction and imitation
Parents don't teach grammatical rules: force a context of speech not grammar
Children generation more grammatical sentences than they ever hear (are learning w/o reinforcement )
Children overgeneralize grammar which parents wouldn't reinforce
What is Nativist ?
- Inmate biological capacity - language acquisition device (LAD)
- Much evidence to suggest language capacity are built into the brain (eg Genie and primitive language skills)
- Genetic dysphasia: inability to learn grammatical structure of language despite normal intelligence
Explain why, but not how language develop
What is Interactionist ?
Innate ability to acquire language coupled with social interaction to develop language
Brain capacities + environment
What is Broca's aphasia ?
understand language but have difficulty with complex grammar, difficulty with speech production, Ah Monday uh, Casey, Park
What is Wernicke's aphasia ?
produce meaningless grammatical speech; difficulty comprehending language; feel very welll. In other words, I don't know how
Evidence for right cerebral hemisphere
Right hemi shows capacity for processing meaning
Damage to the right hemi = problems with language comprehension
Right hemi: activation during language tasks
Removal of left hemisphere still allows recovery of language abilities
Benefit of exerting executive control to suppress the language they don't want to use
Benefit of delayed onset of Alzheimer's disease
Cost of smaller vocabulary and delayed processing than monolinguals
What is linguistic relatively hypothesis ?
language shapes the nature of thought
What does language influence ?
color processing and concept of time
spatial terms; looking forward to it
vertical spatial; looking up to it
something must be true of the object to prove it belongs to category; four legs/tail