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ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals


management vs leadership?

- some ismilarities
- managers focus on doing things right while leaders do the right thing
- managers implement a companys vision but leaders create it


what is managerial leadership?

getting others to understand what needs to be done and then facilitating individual and colelctive efforts to accomplish that task


management is about coping with?



leadership is about coping with?



how do companies cope with complexity? 3 ways
- second part of answer is how they do it

1. determining what needs to be done - planning and budgeting
2. creating arrangement or people to accomplish an agenda - organizing and staffing
3. ensuring people do their jobs - controlling and problem solving


how does leadership cope with change? 3 ways
- second part of answer is how they do it

1. determines what needs to be done - setting a direction (vision)
2. creating arrangements of people to accomplish an agenda - aligning people
3. ensuring people do their jobs - motivating and inspiring


leaders have what two things? and what are they?

power and authority
authority: right to perform or command because of their position within the organization
power: extent to which a person is able to influence others so they respond to orders


within organizations what are the 5 sources of power leaders typical draw on?

1. legitimate power
2. reward power
3. coercive power
4. expert power
5. referent power


what is legitimate power that leaders have within an organization?

power that stems from managers formal position within company


what is reward power that leaders have within an organization?

- power they have created by ability to reward subordinates whether by compimenting or something like money


what is coercive power that leaders have within an organization?

- power because of the ability they have to punish employees by firing or ridicule etc....


what is expert power that leaders have within an organization?

- power because of ones specialized information or expertise on something


what is referent power that leaders have within an organization?

power because of their ability to persuade followers by their persoanlity, attitudes or background


what are the 9 tactics to influence others to do what you want? in order from most used to least used?

1. rational persuasion (all best companies do this)
2. inspiration appeals (customers will love us if we do this)
3. consultation (wonder what you think about this matter)
4. ingratiating tactics (you are the only one that can help me)
5. personal appeals
6. exchange tactics
7. coalition tactics
8. pressure tactics
9. legitimating tactics


what are the big 5 approaches to leadership?

1. trait
2. behavioral
3. situational
4. transformation
5. three additional


what is trait approach leadership and who came up with it?

ralph stogdill
- attempts to identify disctinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders


what are 4 positive task oriented traits?

1. intelligence
2. conscientiousness
3. openess to experience
4. emotional stability


what are 3 negative attributes of osme leaders? what do all these cause?

1. narcissim
2. machiavellianism
3. pscyopathy

- counterproductive work behaviors


what is narcissim negative attribute of leaders?

- self center perspective with a feeling of superiority that stems from a desire for personal poewr and glory


what is machiavellianism negative attribute of leaders?

leader displays a cycnical view of human nature and condones opporunitistic or unethical ways of manipulating people by putting results over principles


what is psychopathy negative attribute of leaders?

- leaders demonstrate lack of concern for others, impulsive behavior, and little remorse when their actions harm others


what are some traints women leaders possess that make them better leaders?

1. better at teamwork and partnering
2. more collobaorative
3. les spersonal glory and more company usccess
4. more stable
5. less turf conscious
6. more social leadership
7. mroe task leadership


why are there not many women executives? 4 things

1. unwilligness to compete or sacrifice
2. modesty
3. lack of mentor
4. starting out lower, and more likely to quit


what is difference between behavioral leadership approach vs trait leadership approach?

patterns of behavior or more important to know about leaders than thei rperosnality traits


behavioral pattern appraoch is what?

approach that attempts to determine the unique behaviors displayed by effective leaders


what are the 4 categories of the behavioral approach?

1. task-oriented behavior
2. relationship-oriented behavior
3. passive behavior
4. transformational behavior


What is purpose of task-oriented leadership behavior?

behavior geared aorund ensuring all resources, including people, are ussed efficiently to accomplish task


what do all the leadership styles apply to for the most part?

organizationally for the most part


make chart of this chapter

make chart of this chapter


what are two kids of task-oriented leadership that are important?

1. initiating-structure leadership
2. transactional leadership


initiating-structure task oriented leadership type?

creates structure for what employees should be doing to maximize output


transactional leadership task oriented type?

focuses on clarifying employees roles and task requirements and providing rewards and punishments based on performance


what is relationship oriented leadership and what 3 types are there?

- leadership primarily concerned with leader's interaction with his or her people
1. consideration
2. empowering leadership
3. servant leadership


what is consideration in relationship oriented leadership?

leader behavior conerneced with grup members needs and desires that is directed at creating mutual respect or trust


what is empowering leadership type in relaitonship oriented leadership? and what is psychological empowerment?

- extent to which leaders create psychological empowerment in others
psychological empowerment: is employees belief that they have control over theiur owkr


what 4 behaviors of leaders create psychological empowerment? and what are they? (second part is answer)

leading for ...
1. meaningfulness - inspiring and moedling behavior
2. self-detemrination - delegating meaningful tasks so employees feel valued
3. competence - supporting and coaching meployees
4. progress - monitoring and rewarding employees


what is servant leadership category in relationship oriented leadership?

- focuses on providing increased service to others by meeting the goals of both the followers and organization


is passive leadership actually leadership?



what is passive leadership?

form of leaderhsip by a lack of leadership skills


what is lasissez-faire leadership?

form of leadership characterized by a general failure to take responsibility for leading


what are two key conclusions we may take away from behavioral approaches?

1. leader's behavior is more important than his other traits
2. there is no one best style of leadership


what is the situational approach to leadership (what is it also known as) and what are the two approaches?

- aka contingency approach
- believe that effective leadership approach depends on the situaion
two appraoches
1. contingency leadership model
2. path-goal leadership model


what is the contingency leadership model? who made it? and what two things does it determine?

- fred fielder
- determines if a leadership style is 1. task-oriented or 2. relationship oriented
and if that style is effective
- basicallya re you more conerneced with task accomplishment or pleasing people


what is situational ocntrol?

how much control and influence a leader has in the immediate work environment


what are 3 dimensions of situational control? and what are they? answered by second part?

1. leader-member relations - do my subordinates accept me as a leader
2. task structure: do my subordinates perform unambiguous, easily understood tasks
3. position power - do i have power to reward and punish


amount of situation control is either what two things?

high or low in terms of amount of influence


when is task oriented style best?

in low or high control situation


when is relationship-oriented style best?

situation of moderate control


what is the path-goal leadership model and who made it?

robert house
- effective leaders make available to followers rewards in the workplace and increase their motivation by clarifying the behavior or path that will help them achieve those goals and provide them with support


what determines leadership effectiveness? 3 things

1. employee charatceristics
2. environmental factors
3. leader behaviors


wjat are the 9 leadership styles of the revised path goal theory?

1. path-goal clarifying
2. achievement oriented
3. work faciliation
4. supportive
5. interaction faciliation
6. group oriented decision making
7. representation and networking
8. value-based


whats house revised goal-theory 3 implications for managers?

1. use more than one leadership style
2. help employees achieve their goals
3. modify leadership style to fit employee and task characteristics


what is full-range leadership and who made it?

bernard bass and bruce avolio
- suggests leadership behaviors varies on the enitre scalle from passive leadership at the bottom, through transacrional leadeship , to transformational leadership at the extreme


what is transformational leadership? and what two factors influenced transformational leaders

leadership that transofmrs employees to pursue organizational goals by going above and beyond
1. individual characteristics
2. organizational culture


what are 4 key behaviors of tranformational leaders?

1. inspirational motivation - creating a vision that motivates
- because of charisma and charismatic leadership
2. Idealized influence - inspire trust
3. indivudalized consideration - let employee know they have opportunity to grow here
4. intellectual stimulation - let met describe challenges we can conquer


what is leadershpi-member exchange model of leadership? what two groups?

- leaders have different realtionship with different subordinates
- in grup exchange and out group exchange


what is in group exchange in the ledership member exchnage model??

based on trust and respect


what is outgroup exchange in the ledership member exchnage model?

lack of trust and respect


what is e leadership?

leadership via technology whether its one on one or with a group etc...


what do followers want their leaders to create? create feelings of... 3 things?

1. significance
2. community
3. excitement