CHAPTER 9: Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Human Physiology > CHAPTER 9: Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in CHAPTER 9: Nervous System Deck (58):
0

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Consists of the brain and spinal cord.

1

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Consists of all the other nerves of the body EXCEPT the brain and spinal cord.

2

A nerve cell is called a _____.

Neuron

3

•structural and functional cell of the nervous system.
•reacts to physical and chemical changes
•does NOT touch other _____

Neuron

4

•connects neurons to blood vessels
•provides support
•removes cellular debris

Astrocyte (star-shaped)

5

•arranged along nerve fibers
•produces myelin

Oligodendrocyte

6

•provides support
•phagocytize bacteria

Microglia

7

•covers part of the brain

Ependyma

8

•only one axon
•many dendrites
•found only in the brain and spinal cord

Multipolar neuron

9

•one dendrite
•one axon
•found in eyes, nose, and ears

Bipolar Neuron

10

•one nerve fiber and the branches out
•mass of these make-up a ganglion axon
•found outside the brain and spinal cord

Unipolar Neuron

11

A grouping of neurons

Nerves

12

•sends impulses to the brain

Sensory Nerves

13

•sends impulses to muscles

Motor Nerves

14

•contains both sensory and motor neurons

Mixed Nerves

15

A nerve impulse is also called an...

Action Potential

16

•junction between two neurons

Synapse

17

•a gap between two neurons

Synaptic Cleft

18

•breaks down ACH

Cholinesterase

19

•breaks down monoamines

Monoamine Oxidase

20

•used in skeletal muscle contraction

ACH-Acetylcholine

21

•creates sense of "feeling good", too little-depression

Norepinephrine - Monoamines

22

•creates sense of "feeling good" -low amounts associated with Parkinson's disease

Dopamine - Monoamines

23

•leads to sleepiness

Serotonine - Monoamines

24

•promotes alertness

Histamine - Monoamines

25

•pain perception

Substance P

26

•reduces pain

Endorphines

27

•the route nerve impulses travel

Nerve Pathways

28

•automatic, unconscious responses to changes occurring within or outside the body
-knee jerk
-withdrawal reflex

Reflexes

29

•brain and spinal cord are protected by membranes called ____.

Meninges

30

•tough
•attaches to cranial cavity

Dura Mater

31

•subarachnoid space below contains cerebrospinal fluid

Arachnoid Mater

32

•contains nerves and blood vessels

Pia Mater

33

•31 segments
•each with a pair of spinal nerves
•central canal - contains CSF
•gray matter - mostly inter neurons
•white matter - compromised of ascending And descending tracts

Spinal Cord Structure

34

•provides a 2 way communication system between the brain and other body parts

Function of the Spinal Cord

35

•carry sensory impulses to the brain

Ascending Tracts

36

•carry motor impulses to muscles and glands

Descending Tracts

37

•Cerebrum
•Brain Stem
•Cerebellum

3 Parts of Brain

38

•ridges on the brain

Convolutions or Gyri

39

•shallow groove

Sulcus

40

•deep groove

Fissure

41

•layer of gray matter that covers the cerebrum

Cerebral Cortex

42

1. Motor Areas
2. Sensory Areas
3. Association Areas
-memory reason judgement and emotion

Areas of Cortex

43

•more logical

Left Hemisphere

44

•more creative

Right Hemisphere

45

•receives sensory impulses
•sends them to appropriate areas of the brain

Thalamus

46

•important in homeostasis
•secretes hormones

Hypothalamus

47

•emotional experiences or response

Limbic System

48

•endocrine gland
•involved in our daily biological clock

Pineal Gland

49

•connects serebrum to spinal cord

Brain Stem

50

•reflex center for the eyes and ears

Midbrain

51

•place where the cranial nerves originate

Pons

52

•control center of various activities
a) cardiac center-heart rate
b) vasomotor center-sends blood
c) respiratory center-breathing
•contains the reticular formation
-involved with activating brain and waking up.

Medulla Oblongata

53

•consists of 2 hemispheres
•divided by the vermis
•cerebullar cortex is the outermost layer

Cerebellum

54

1. Maintaining muscle and balance
2. Coordinating motion

Cerebellum Functions

55

•12 pairs
•originates in brain

Cranial Nerves

56

•31 pairs
•provide 2-way communication between spinal cord and parts of the body

Spinal Nerves

57

•part of PNS
•controls unconscious activities
-heart beat
-involuntary muscles
-maintains homeostasis

The Autonomic Nervous System