CHAPTER 9: RESPIRATORY TRACT PATHOLOGY Flashcards Preview

Pathoma > CHAPTER 9: RESPIRATORY TRACT PATHOLOGY > Flashcards

Flashcards in CHAPTER 9: RESPIRATORY TRACT PATHOLOGY Deck (36):
1

What is rhinitis?

Inflammation of the nasal mucosa i.e. the common cold

2

What is the most common cause of rhinitis?

Adenovirus

3

What type of hypersentivity reaction is allergic rhinitis?

Type I

4

What is allergic rhinitis characterized by?

Inflammatory infiltrate with eosinophils

5

What is allergic rhinitis associated with?

Other atopic diseases e.g. asthma and eczema

6

What is a nasal polyp?

Protrusion of edematous, inflamed nasal mucosa

7

What typically leads to the development of nasal polyps?

Repeated rhinitis

8

If you see nasal polyps in a child what do you need to test for?

Cystic Fibrosis

9

What can nasal polyps in adults be associated with?

Aspirin-intolerant asthma

10

What is the triad of sx. seen in aspirin intolerant asthma?

1) Asthma
2) Aspirin induced bronchospasm
3) Nasal polyps

11

What is an angiofibroma?

- Benign tumor of the nasal mucosa
- Composed of large BV and fibrous tissue

12

What patients are angiofibromas classically seen in?

Adolescent males

13

How does an angiofibroma typically present?

Profuse epistaxis in an adolescent male

14

What is a nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

Malignant tumor of the nasopharyngeal epithelium

15

What microorganism is nasopharyngeal carcinoma associated with?

EBV

16

What are the two populations that nasopharyngeal carcinoma is relatively common in?

1) African children
2) Chinese adults

17

What will biopsy of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma show?

Pleomorphic keratin-positive epithelial cells in a background of lymphocytes

18

How does nasopharyngeal carcinoma present?

Cervical LAD

19

What is acute epiglottitis?

Inflammation of the epiglottis that is a medical emergency

20

What is the most common cause of acute epiglottitis?

H. influenza B

21

How does acute epiglottits present?

- Fever
- Sore throat
- Drooling
- Dysphagia
- Muffled voice
- Inspiratory stridor

22

What is the more common name for laryngotracheaobronchitis?

Croup

23

What is croup?

Inflammation of the upper airway

24

What is the most common cause of croup?

Parainfluenza infection

25

How does croup present?

- Hoarse barking coup
- Inspiratory stridor

26

What is a vocal cord nodule?

Nodule in the true vocal cord

27

What causes vocal cord nodules?

Excessive use; thus, it is also called a "Singer's Nodule"

*Generally, these occur bilaterally

28

What is a vocal cord nodule composed of?

Degenerative myxoid connective tissue

29

How is the treatment for vocal cord nodules?

Resting the voice

30

What is a laryngeal papilloma?

Benign papillary tumor of the vocal cord

31

What causes laryngeal papillomas?

HPV-6 and 11

32

What is the difference between larygeal papillomas in adults and children?

Children= single

Adults= multiple

33

How does a laryngeal papilloma present?

Hoarseness

34

What is laryngeal carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinoma of the epithelial lining of the vocal cord

35

What are the risk factors for a laryngeal carcinoma?

1) Alcohol
2) Tobacco

*Also, can arise from a laryngeal papilloma

36

How does a laryngeal carcinoma present?

- Hoarseness
- Cough
- Stridor