Flashcards in CHAPTER 9: RESPIRATORY TRACT PATHOLOGY Deck (36):
What is rhinitis?
Inflammation of the nasal mucosa i.e. the common cold
What is the most common cause of rhinitis?
What type of hypersentivity reaction is allergic rhinitis?
What is allergic rhinitis characterized by?
Inflammatory infiltrate with eosinophils
What is allergic rhinitis associated with?
Other atopic diseases e.g. asthma and eczema
What is a nasal polyp?
Protrusion of edematous, inflamed nasal mucosa
What typically leads to the development of nasal polyps?
If you see nasal polyps in a child what do you need to test for?
What can nasal polyps in adults be associated with?
What is the triad of sx. seen in aspirin intolerant asthma?
2) Aspirin induced bronchospasm
3) Nasal polyps
What is an angiofibroma?
- Benign tumor of the nasal mucosa
- Composed of large BV and fibrous tissue
What patients are angiofibromas classically seen in?
How does an angiofibroma typically present?
Profuse epistaxis in an adolescent male
What is a nasopharyngeal carcinoma?
Malignant tumor of the nasopharyngeal epithelium
What microorganism is nasopharyngeal carcinoma associated with?
What are the two populations that nasopharyngeal carcinoma is relatively common in?
1) African children
2) Chinese adults
What will biopsy of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma show?
Pleomorphic keratin-positive epithelial cells in a background of lymphocytes
How does nasopharyngeal carcinoma present?
What is acute epiglottitis?
Inflammation of the epiglottis that is a medical emergency
What is the most common cause of acute epiglottitis?
H. influenza B
How does acute epiglottits present?
- Sore throat
- Muffled voice
- Inspiratory stridor
What is the more common name for laryngotracheaobronchitis?
What is croup?
Inflammation of the upper airway
What is the most common cause of croup?
How does croup present?
- Hoarse barking coup
- Inspiratory stridor
What is a vocal cord nodule?
Nodule in the true vocal cord
What causes vocal cord nodules?
Excessive use; thus, it is also called a "Singer's Nodule"
*Generally, these occur bilaterally
What is a vocal cord nodule composed of?
Degenerative myxoid connective tissue
How is the treatment for vocal cord nodules?
Resting the voice
What is a laryngeal papilloma?
Benign papillary tumor of the vocal cord
What causes laryngeal papillomas?
HPV-6 and 11
What is the difference between larygeal papillomas in adults and children?
How does a laryngeal papilloma present?
What is laryngeal carcinoma?
Squamous cell carcinoma of the epithelial lining of the vocal cord
What are the risk factors for a laryngeal carcinoma?
*Also, can arise from a laryngeal papilloma