Chapter 9: Skeletal System: Articulations Flashcards Preview

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY > Chapter 9: Skeletal System: Articulations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9: Skeletal System: Articulations Deck (132):
1

the place of contact between bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bones and teeth.

joint or articulation

2

Bones are said to _____ with each other at a joint.

articulate

3

The scientific study of joints is called ___.

arthrology

4

Joints are classified by both their structural characteristics and the ____ they allow.

movements

5

Joints are categorized structurally on the basis of whether a space occurs between the _____ and the type of connective tissue that binds the articulating surfaces of the bones.

articulating bones

6

has no joint cavity and occurs where bones are held together by dense regular (fibrous) connective tissue.

fibrous joint

7

has no joint cavity and occurs where bones are joined by cartilage

cartilaginous joint

8

a fluid-filled joint cavity that separates the articulating surfaces of the bones. the articulating surfaces are enclosed within a connective tissue capsule, and the bones are attached to each other by various ligaments.

synovial joint

9

Joints are classified into 3 different structural categories

fibrous
cartilaginous
synovial

10

Joints are classified into 3 different functional categories based on the extent of the movement that permit

synarthrosis
amphiarthrosis
diarthrosis

11

_______ is an immobile joint. two types of fibrous joints and one type of cartilaginous joint are _______.

Synarthrosis
synarthroses

12

An _____ is a slightly mobile joint. One type of fibrous joint and one type of cartilaginous joint are _____.

amphiarthrosis
amphiarthroses

13

A ________ is a freely mobile joint.

diarthrosis

14

All synovial joints are ____.

diarthroses

15

The _____ of each joint determines both its mobility and its stability.

structure

16

When the mobility of a joint increases, its stability ______.

decreases

17

If a joint is immobile, it has ____ stability.

maximum

18

Structural characteristics of a _____ joint include dense regular connective tissue that holds together the ends of bones and bone parts; no joint cavity.

fibrous

19

Structural characteristics of a ____ joint include a pad of cartilage that is wedged between the ends of bones; no joint cavity.

cartilaginous

20

Structural characteristics of ____ joint include the ends of bones covered with articular cartilage; joint cavity separates the articulating bones; joint enclosed by an articular capsule, lined by a synovial membrane; contain synovial fluid.

synovial

21

Three structural categories of fibrous joints.

gomphosis
suture
syndemosis

22

Two structural categories of cartilaginous joints.

synchondrosis
symphysis

23

Three structural categories of synovial joints.

Uniaxial
Plane joint
Hinge joint
Pivot joint
Biaxial
Condylar joint
Saddle joint
Multiaxial (Triaxial)
Ball and socket joint

24

periodontal membranes hold tooth to bony jaw

gomphosis
i.e. tooth to jaw

25

dense regular connective tissue connects skull bones

suture
ie. Lamboid suture (connects occipital and parietal bones)

26

dense regular connective tissue fibers between bones

syndesmosis
i.e. articulation between radius and ulna, and between tibia and fibula

27

hyaline cartilage between bones

synchondrosis
i.e. epiphyseal plates in growing bones; costochondral joints

28

fibrocartilage pad between bones

symphysis
i.e. pubic symphysis; intervertebral disc articulations

29

flattened or slightly curved faces slide across one another

plane joint
i.e. intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints

30

convex feature of one bone fits into concave depression of another bone

hinge joint
i.e. elbow joint, knee joint

31

bone with rounded surface fits into a ring formed by a ligament and another bone

pivot joint
i.e. atlantoaxial joint

32

oval articular surface on one bone closely interfaces with a depressed oval surface on another bone

condylar joint
i.e. MP (metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal) joints

33

saddle-shaped articular surface on one bone closely interfaces with a saddle shaped surface on another bone

saddle joint
i.e. articulation between carpal and first metacarpal bone

34

round head of one bone rests within cup-shaped depression in another bone

ball and socket joint
i.e. glenohumeral (shoulder) joint, hip joint

35

Gomphosis classification.

fibrous
synthrosis
immobile

36

Suture classification.

fibrous
synarthrosis
immobile

37

Syndemosis classification.

fibrous
amphiarthrosis
slightly mobile

38

Synchondrosis classification.

cartilaginous
synarthrosis
immobile

39

Symphysis classification

cartilaginous
amphriarthrosis
slightly mobile

40

Uniaxial classification.
Plane
Hinge
Pivot

synovial
diarthrosis
freely mobile

41

Biaxial classification.
Condylar
Saddle

Synovial
Diarthrosis
freely mobile

42

Multiaxial (Triaxial)
Ball and Socket

Synovial
Diarthrosis
freely mobile

43

The most stable joint

suture

44

The most unstable joint

glenohumeral

45

A ____ resembles a "peg in a socket".

gomphosis

46

The only _____ in the human body are the articulations of the roots of individual teeth with the alveolar processes (sockets) of the mandible and the maxillae.

gomphoses

47

A tooth is held firmly in place by fibrous _____ membranes.

periodontal membranes

48

____ have distinct, interlocking, usually irregular edges that both increase their strength and decrease the number of fractures at these articulations.

sutures

49

Sutures permit the skull to ___ as the brain increases in size during childhood.

grow

50

In an older adult, the suture becomes _____, fusing the skull bones together.

ossified

51

When the bones have completely fused across the suture line, these obliterated sutures become _____.

synostoses

52

The shafts of the two articulating bones are bound by a broad ligamentous sheet called an ______.

interosseous membrane

53

The interosseous membrane provides a ____ where the radius and ulna (or the tibia and fibula) can move against one another.

pivot

54

The cartilage found between the articulating bones is either ____ or _____.

hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage

55

The hyaline cartilage of epiphyseal plates in children forms ____ that bind the epiphyses and diaphysis of long bones.

synchondroses

56

When the hyaline cartilage stops growing, bone replaces the _____ and a sychondrosis no longer exists.

cartilage

57

The ____ synchondrosis found between the body of the sphenoid and the basilar part of the occipital bone.

spheno-occipital

58

The spheno-occipital synchodrosis typically fuses between ____ of age, making it a useful tool for assessing the age of the skull.

18 to 25 years of age

59

the joint between each bony rib and its respective costal cartilage, is a synchondrosis

costochondral joint

60

In pregnant females, the pubic symphysis becomes more mobile to allow the pelvis to ____ slightly as the fetus passes through the birth canal.

change shape

61

The ____ resists both compression and tension stresses and acts as a resilient shock absorber.

fibrocartilage

62

Individual intervertebral discs allow only slight movements between the adjacent vertebrae; however, the collective movements of all the intervertebral discs afford the spine considerable _____.

flexibility

63

freely mobile articulations

synovial joints

64

most of the commonly known in the body are ___ joints.

synovial

65

All synovial joints include several basic features; an articular capsule, a joint cavity, synovial fluid, ______, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.

articular cartilage

66

Each synovial joint is composed of a _____ capsule called the articular capsule, or joint capsule.

double-layered

67

The outer layer of the articular capsule is called the ____.

fibrous layer

68

The inner layer of the articular capsule is called the _____.

synovial membrane or synovium

69

The fibrous layer is formed from _____ tissue.

dense connective

70

The fibrous layer strengthens the joint to prevent the bones from being _____.

pulled apart

71

The synovial membrane is composed of ____ cells resting on an areolar connective tissue layer.

squamous epithelial

72

The ____ covers all the internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage and lines the articular capsule, and helps produce _____.

synovial membrane
synovial fluid

73

All articulating bone surfaces in a synovial joint are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage called _____.

articular cartilage

74

The articular cartilage ____ friction in the joint during movement, acts as a ____ to absorb compression placed on the joint, and prevents damage to the articulating ___ of the bones.

reduces
spongy cushion
ends

75

The articular cartilage lacks a ____.

perichondrium.

76

The repetitious compression and expansion that occurs during exercise is vital to maintaining healthy articular cartilage because this action enhances its obtaining _______.

nutrition and its waste removal.

77

Only ___ joints house a joint cavity or articular cavity.

synovial

78

a space that permits separation of the articulating bones.

joint cavity or articular cavity

79

The articular cartilage and ____ within the joint cavity together reduce friction as bones move at a synovial joint.

synovial fluid

80

a viscous, oily substance located within a synovial joint.

synovial fluid

81

Synovial fluid _____ the articular cartilage on the surface of articulating bones.

lubricates

82

Synovial fluid ____ the articular cartilage's chondrocytes. The relatively small volume of synovial fluid must be circulated continually to provide nutrients and to remove wastes from these cells.

nourishes

83

Synovial fluid acts as a ____, distributing stresses and force evenly across the articular surfaces when the pressure in the joint suddenly increases.

shock absorber

84

composed of dense regular connective tissue, and they connect one bone to another bone.

ligaments

85

Ligaments function to stabilize, strengthen, and ____ most synovial joints.

reinforce

86

______ ligaments that are outside of, and physically separate from, the joint capsule.

extrinsic

87

______ ligaments represent thickenings of the articular capsule itself.

intrinsic

88

Intrinsic ligaments include extracapsular ligaments outside the joint capsule and ____ ligaments within the joint capsule.

intracapsular

89

All synovial joints have numerous ____ and _____ that innervate and supply the articular capsule and associated ligaments.

sensory nerves and blood vessels

90

The sensory nerves detect ___ stimuli with in the joint and report the amount of movement and stretch within the joint.

painful

91

By monitoring stretching within the joint, the nervous system can detect changes in our posture and ______

adjust body movements

92

are composed of dense regular connective tissue but they are not part of the synovial joint itself, they bind bone to bone.

tendons

93

When a muscle contracts, the ____ from the muscle moves the bone to which it is attached, thus causing movement at the joint.

tendon

94

Tendons help _____ joints because they pass across or around a joint to provide mechanical support, and sometimes they limit the _____ of movement permitted at a joint.

stabilize
range or amount

95

Synovial joints usually have bursae and ____ as accessory structures in addition to the main components just described.

fat pads

96

a fibrous, saclike structure that contains synovial fluid and is lined internally by a synovial membrane.

bursae

97

Bursae are associated with most ___ joints and are where bones, ligaments, muscles, skin, or tendons overlie each other and rub together.

synovial joints

98

Bursae may be either connected to the joint cavity or ____.

completely separate from the joint cavity.

99

An elongated bursa called a ____ wraps around a tendon where there may be excessive friction.

tendon sheath

100

Tendon sheaths are especially common in the confined spaces of the ____ and ____.

wrist and ankle

101

Are often distributed along the periphery of a synovial joint and act as packing material and provide some protection for the joint.

fat pads

102

Often ____ fill the spaces that form when bones move and the joint cavity changes shape.

fat pads

103

the bone moves in just one plane or axis

uniaxial joint

104

the bone moves in two planes or axes

biaxial joint

105

the bone moves in multiple planes or axes

multiaxial or triaxial joint

106

In a ____ joint only allows limited side-to-side movements in a single plane, and because there is no rotational or angular movement with this joint.

plane

107

A _______ an elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point called the _____.

lever
fulcrum

108

Levers have the ability to alter or change the speed and distance of movement produced by a force, the direction of ____, and the force strength.

an applied force

109

Movement occurs when an ____ applied to one point on the lever exceeds a ____ located at some other point.

effort
resistance

110

The part of a lever from the fulcrum to the point of effort is called the _____.

effort arm

111

The lever part from the fulcrum to the point of resistance is the ____.

resistance arm

112

A long bone acts as a ____, a joint serves the ___, and the effort is generated by a muscle attached to the bone.

lever
fulcrum

113

Three classes of levers found in the human body

first class
second class
third class

114

FRE acronym

In a first class lever, the fulcrum is between the resistance and the effort
In a second class lever, the fulcrum and the applied effort
In a third class lever, the effort is in between the fulcrum and the resistance

115

two opposing articular surfaces slide past each other in almost any direction; the amount of movement is slight

gliding motion

116

Gliding, angular, rotational, and special movements are the types of motions that occur in the ______.

synovial joints

117

the angle between articulating bones increases or decreases

angular motion

118

a bone pivots around its own longitudinal axis

rotational motion

119

types of movement that do not fit in to rotational, gliding, or angular motion.

special movements

120

movement in an anterior-posterior (AP) plane of the body that decreases the angle between the bones

flexion

121

movement in an anterior-posterior (AP) plane that increases the angle between the articulating bones.

extension

122

when a joint is extended more than 180 degrees

hyperextension

123

when the trunk of the body moves in a coronal plane laterally away from the body. this type of movement occurs primarily between the vertebrae in the cervical and lumbar regions of the vertebral column.

lateral flexion

124

means to move away, and it is a lateral movement of a body part away from the body midline.

abduction

125

meaning to move toward the body midline.

adduction

126

a sequence of movements in which the proximal end of an appendage remains relatively stationary while the distal end makes a circular motion. the resulting movement makes an imaginary cone shape.

circumduction

127

a pivoting motion in which a bone turns on its own longitudinal axis

rotation

128

lateral rotation

?

129

medial rotation

?

130

the medial rotation of the forearm so the that the palm of the hand is directed posteriorly or inferiorly.

pronation

131

occurs when the forearm rotates laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly or superiorly.

supination

132

inferior movement of a part of the body

depression