Flashcards in Chapter 9: Skeletal System: Articulations Deck (132):
the place of contact between bones, between bone and cartilage, or between bones and teeth.
joint or articulation
Bones are said to _____ with each other at a joint.
The scientific study of joints is called ___.
Joints are classified by both their structural characteristics and the ____ they allow.
Joints are categorized structurally on the basis of whether a space occurs between the _____ and the type of connective tissue that binds the articulating surfaces of the bones.
has no joint cavity and occurs where bones are held together by dense regular (fibrous) connective tissue.
has no joint cavity and occurs where bones are joined by cartilage
a fluid-filled joint cavity that separates the articulating surfaces of the bones. the articulating surfaces are enclosed within a connective tissue capsule, and the bones are attached to each other by various ligaments.
Joints are classified into 3 different structural categories
Joints are classified into 3 different functional categories based on the extent of the movement that permit
_______ is an immobile joint. two types of fibrous joints and one type of cartilaginous joint are _______.
An _____ is a slightly mobile joint. One type of fibrous joint and one type of cartilaginous joint are _____.
A ________ is a freely mobile joint.
All synovial joints are ____.
The _____ of each joint determines both its mobility and its stability.
When the mobility of a joint increases, its stability ______.
If a joint is immobile, it has ____ stability.
Structural characteristics of a _____ joint include dense regular connective tissue that holds together the ends of bones and bone parts; no joint cavity.
Structural characteristics of a ____ joint include a pad of cartilage that is wedged between the ends of bones; no joint cavity.
Structural characteristics of ____ joint include the ends of bones covered with articular cartilage; joint cavity separates the articulating bones; joint enclosed by an articular capsule, lined by a synovial membrane; contain synovial fluid.
Three structural categories of fibrous joints.
Two structural categories of cartilaginous joints.
Three structural categories of synovial joints.
Ball and socket joint
periodontal membranes hold tooth to bony jaw
i.e. tooth to jaw
dense regular connective tissue connects skull bones
ie. Lamboid suture (connects occipital and parietal bones)
dense regular connective tissue fibers between bones
i.e. articulation between radius and ulna, and between tibia and fibula
hyaline cartilage between bones
i.e. epiphyseal plates in growing bones; costochondral joints
fibrocartilage pad between bones
i.e. pubic symphysis; intervertebral disc articulations
flattened or slightly curved faces slide across one another
i.e. intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints
convex feature of one bone fits into concave depression of another bone
i.e. elbow joint, knee joint
bone with rounded surface fits into a ring formed by a ligament and another bone
i.e. atlantoaxial joint
oval articular surface on one bone closely interfaces with a depressed oval surface on another bone
i.e. MP (metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal) joints
saddle-shaped articular surface on one bone closely interfaces with a saddle shaped surface on another bone
i.e. articulation between carpal and first metacarpal bone
round head of one bone rests within cup-shaped depression in another bone
ball and socket joint
i.e. glenohumeral (shoulder) joint, hip joint
Ball and Socket
The most stable joint
The most unstable joint
A ____ resembles a "peg in a socket".
The only _____ in the human body are the articulations of the roots of individual teeth with the alveolar processes (sockets) of the mandible and the maxillae.
A tooth is held firmly in place by fibrous _____ membranes.
____ have distinct, interlocking, usually irregular edges that both increase their strength and decrease the number of fractures at these articulations.
Sutures permit the skull to ___ as the brain increases in size during childhood.
In an older adult, the suture becomes _____, fusing the skull bones together.
When the bones have completely fused across the suture line, these obliterated sutures become _____.
The shafts of the two articulating bones are bound by a broad ligamentous sheet called an ______.
The interosseous membrane provides a ____ where the radius and ulna (or the tibia and fibula) can move against one another.
The cartilage found between the articulating bones is either ____ or _____.
hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
The hyaline cartilage of epiphyseal plates in children forms ____ that bind the epiphyses and diaphysis of long bones.
When the hyaline cartilage stops growing, bone replaces the _____ and a sychondrosis no longer exists.
The ____ synchondrosis found between the body of the sphenoid and the basilar part of the occipital bone.
The spheno-occipital synchodrosis typically fuses between ____ of age, making it a useful tool for assessing the age of the skull.
18 to 25 years of age
the joint between each bony rib and its respective costal cartilage, is a synchondrosis
In pregnant females, the pubic symphysis becomes more mobile to allow the pelvis to ____ slightly as the fetus passes through the birth canal.
The ____ resists both compression and tension stresses and acts as a resilient shock absorber.
Individual intervertebral discs allow only slight movements between the adjacent vertebrae; however, the collective movements of all the intervertebral discs afford the spine considerable _____.
freely mobile articulations
most of the commonly known in the body are ___ joints.
All synovial joints include several basic features; an articular capsule, a joint cavity, synovial fluid, ______, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.
Each synovial joint is composed of a _____ capsule called the articular capsule, or joint capsule.
The outer layer of the articular capsule is called the ____.
The inner layer of the articular capsule is called the _____.
synovial membrane or synovium
The fibrous layer is formed from _____ tissue.
The fibrous layer strengthens the joint to prevent the bones from being _____.
The synovial membrane is composed of ____ cells resting on an areolar connective tissue layer.
The ____ covers all the internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage and lines the articular capsule, and helps produce _____.
All articulating bone surfaces in a synovial joint are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage called _____.
The articular cartilage ____ friction in the joint during movement, acts as a ____ to absorb compression placed on the joint, and prevents damage to the articulating ___ of the bones.
The articular cartilage lacks a ____.
The repetitious compression and expansion that occurs during exercise is vital to maintaining healthy articular cartilage because this action enhances its obtaining _______.
nutrition and its waste removal.
Only ___ joints house a joint cavity or articular cavity.
a space that permits separation of the articulating bones.
joint cavity or articular cavity
The articular cartilage and ____ within the joint cavity together reduce friction as bones move at a synovial joint.
a viscous, oily substance located within a synovial joint.
Synovial fluid _____ the articular cartilage on the surface of articulating bones.
Synovial fluid ____ the articular cartilage's chondrocytes. The relatively small volume of synovial fluid must be circulated continually to provide nutrients and to remove wastes from these cells.
Synovial fluid acts as a ____, distributing stresses and force evenly across the articular surfaces when the pressure in the joint suddenly increases.
composed of dense regular connective tissue, and they connect one bone to another bone.
Ligaments function to stabilize, strengthen, and ____ most synovial joints.
______ ligaments that are outside of, and physically separate from, the joint capsule.
______ ligaments represent thickenings of the articular capsule itself.
Intrinsic ligaments include extracapsular ligaments outside the joint capsule and ____ ligaments within the joint capsule.
All synovial joints have numerous ____ and _____ that innervate and supply the articular capsule and associated ligaments.
sensory nerves and blood vessels
The sensory nerves detect ___ stimuli with in the joint and report the amount of movement and stretch within the joint.
By monitoring stretching within the joint, the nervous system can detect changes in our posture and ______
adjust body movements
are composed of dense regular connective tissue but they are not part of the synovial joint itself, they bind bone to bone.
When a muscle contracts, the ____ from the muscle moves the bone to which it is attached, thus causing movement at the joint.
Tendons help _____ joints because they pass across or around a joint to provide mechanical support, and sometimes they limit the _____ of movement permitted at a joint.
range or amount
Synovial joints usually have bursae and ____ as accessory structures in addition to the main components just described.
a fibrous, saclike structure that contains synovial fluid and is lined internally by a synovial membrane.
Bursae are associated with most ___ joints and are where bones, ligaments, muscles, skin, or tendons overlie each other and rub together.
Bursae may be either connected to the joint cavity or ____.
completely separate from the joint cavity.
An elongated bursa called a ____ wraps around a tendon where there may be excessive friction.
Tendon sheaths are especially common in the confined spaces of the ____ and ____.
wrist and ankle
Are often distributed along the periphery of a synovial joint and act as packing material and provide some protection for the joint.
Often ____ fill the spaces that form when bones move and the joint cavity changes shape.
the bone moves in just one plane or axis
the bone moves in two planes or axes
the bone moves in multiple planes or axes
multiaxial or triaxial joint
In a ____ joint only allows limited side-to-side movements in a single plane, and because there is no rotational or angular movement with this joint.
A _______ an elongated, rigid object that rotates around a fixed point called the _____.
Levers have the ability to alter or change the speed and distance of movement produced by a force, the direction of ____, and the force strength.
an applied force
Movement occurs when an ____ applied to one point on the lever exceeds a ____ located at some other point.
The part of a lever from the fulcrum to the point of effort is called the _____.
The lever part from the fulcrum to the point of resistance is the ____.
A long bone acts as a ____, a joint serves the ___, and the effort is generated by a muscle attached to the bone.
Three classes of levers found in the human body
In a first class lever, the fulcrum is between the resistance and the effort
In a second class lever, the fulcrum and the applied effort
In a third class lever, the effort is in between the fulcrum and the resistance
two opposing articular surfaces slide past each other in almost any direction; the amount of movement is slight
Gliding, angular, rotational, and special movements are the types of motions that occur in the ______.
the angle between articulating bones increases or decreases
a bone pivots around its own longitudinal axis
types of movement that do not fit in to rotational, gliding, or angular motion.
movement in an anterior-posterior (AP) plane of the body that decreases the angle between the bones
movement in an anterior-posterior (AP) plane that increases the angle between the articulating bones.
when a joint is extended more than 180 degrees
when the trunk of the body moves in a coronal plane laterally away from the body. this type of movement occurs primarily between the vertebrae in the cervical and lumbar regions of the vertebral column.
means to move away, and it is a lateral movement of a body part away from the body midline.
meaning to move toward the body midline.
a sequence of movements in which the proximal end of an appendage remains relatively stationary while the distal end makes a circular motion. the resulting movement makes an imaginary cone shape.
a pivoting motion in which a bone turns on its own longitudinal axis
the medial rotation of the forearm so the that the palm of the hand is directed posteriorly or inferiorly.
occurs when the forearm rotates laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly or superiorly.