Flashcards in Chapter # 9 Structural Search, Victim Removal, Firefighter Survival Deck (63):
Assessment of a facility or location made before an emergency occurs, in order to prepare for an appropriate emergency response.
Any facility in which a fire, accident, or natural disaster could cause substantial casualties or significant economic harm, through either property or infrastructure damage.
What type of building is it important for firefighters to survey during initial construction, due to not having access after it has been completed?
Ongoing evaluation of the influential factors at the scene of an incident.
List the three questions that must be answered when doing a size up.
What has happened? What is happening? What is going to happen?
All personal should ACTIVELY monitor conditions so that everyone stays informed. However the ultimate responsibility for an incident size up rest with who?
The officer in charge.
Escapes occupants should be questioned about what?
Who might still be in the building and their location. The location and extent of the fire.
If possible, fire attack and ventilation should be started simultaneously with what?
Any interior search.
Name the two objectives of a structural search.
Searching for life and Assessing fire conditions.
Primary search should occur in these four areas in this order.
Most severely threatened. (area closet to the fire on the fire floor and the floor above. Also the top floor in a multistory structure.).
Largest numbers (area with the most possible victims).
Remainder of Hazard Zone. (areas farthest away from the fire on the same level, upper floors, and floors below the fire).
Exposure (interior and exterior).
Name three types of specialized search methods.
Oriented search, Wide area search, Thermal Imagers
To ensure a complete search always exit through the same what>
Door way you entered
On the fire floor a search should be started where>
As close to the fire as possible working back to the entrance door.
Egress should always be controlled during a search, list three ways to accomplish this.
Wedge doors open to prevent them from closing on you or on hose lines. Close doors adjacent to the passageway after they have been searched. Position hose teams at intervals along the path to coll accumulated gases.
What is the preferred method of moving if there is minimal smoke and heat?
Name three conditions that should be reported to the IC during a search.
If the fire has spread farther then was predicted. If trapped victims are found. If search has to be terminated.
Search method where a team leader is anchored at a door, wall, hose line while other team members spread through the room to complete the search.
Search method typically using a 3/8" 200' rope. Rope is tied to a fixed object outside the search area entrance. a minimum of three members enter the area to conduct the search.
Wide area search method
Each knot tied in the rope during a wide area search indicates what?
20' in on the search line.
What is located after a metal ring in a wide area search.
A knot or series of knots. knots toward fire, rings toward exit.
Tethers that can be attached to the rings of a wide area search line are made of 1/4" by what length?
What is located at the middle of a tether line?
Any time team members move off the wide area search line, they must stay in what with the navigator?
During a wide area search what are three things the navigator should report to the IC.
Fire Conditions. What has been found. How many knots into the building they have progressed.
List some disadvantages if TIC's.
Can not detect people behind furniture or walls. Can not see through water or glass. Can not detect fire on floors with carpet. Fragile and prone to mechanical failure.
When scanning with a TIC start at what part of the room?
Floor working up.
List three methods of search marking a door.
Chalk or crayon, Specially designed door markers, Latch strap over door knob.
Where should search markings be placed?
Lower third of a door or wall, landing of adjacent stairs.
A single slash indicates the room is being search. A x indicates the search is complete. The search unit is placed at what point? Time completed at what point? Hazards at what point? Victims and their condition at what point?
Left of X. Top of X. Right of X. Bottom of X
List three methods of separating victims from a hazard.
Self-evacuation, Shelter in place, Rescue
Who are the only ones that can make the decision to have victims shelter in place?
Supervisor or IC
List 5 cases where shelter in place may be used.
The hazard is minor. It is safer to keep victims inside the structure. Victims can not be moved. Limited staffing to assist with evacuation. Structure provides a protective barrier between the victim and hazard.
Required when conditions prevent self evacuation and shelter in place, or when victims are directly threatened.
Injured victims should not be moved until they have been what? Unless they or you are in immediate danger.
they have been assessed and treated.
In extreme emergency's preserving the victims life is what?
The first priority
Enables a rescuer to move a victim up or down a stairway or incline.
Rescuer pulls on a section of webbing that is wrapped around the victims body. Useful when heat and smoke for you to stay low, or if the victim is a downed firefighter with a SCBA.
Used to carry small adults and children that are conscious. Not practical in unconscious victims due to difficulty in supporting head and neck.
Cradle in Arms Lift/Carry
Enables two rescuers to carry a conscious or unconscious victim.
Seat Lift/Carry or Extremities Carry
Internationally recognized distress signal.
Name five potential mayday emergency's.
Air emergency, Lost/disoriented, Entanglement, Thermal emergencies, Collapse/trapped.
T or F You increase your chances of surviving if you immediately communicate that you are in danger.
What does LUNAR stand for?
Location, Unit, Name, Assignment, Resources needed, Situation
Name three key points of air management.
Always know how much air you have, Know your point of no return, Notify the IC if you must exit the structure.
Point at which air in the SCBA will last only long enough to exit a hazardous atmosphere.
Point of no return
Decisions to exit the structure are made by the supervisor or IC except in what two cases?
separated from the team, catastrophic event such as a collapse.
If a MAYDAY occurs what are your three options of action?
remain in place, seek safe haven, escape
If you decided to remain in place do these things after calling a MAYDAY.
Continue to communicate over radio. Activate PASS. Find a way to make noise. Shine flashlight or hand overhead. Momentarily turn off PASS to listen for sounds that give clues to your location.
If you decided on seeking safe haven after a MAYDAY take these steps into consideration.
Stay low to the floor. Use hose stream as protection. Close doors between you and the fire. Use tools to shore up building materials. Filter toxic air (keep face piece on, crack bypass, use hood to filter).
List 5 circumstances when escape is the best option.
Imminent threat of structural collapse. No safe place to shelter. Air supply is gone. Extreme fire conditions. Orders to abandon building.
A male coupling with larger lugs is located toward what?
The water source/exit.
When smoke is dense and low but you can see the floor you can use what type of walk?
If you must move your SCBA to breach through a wall what is the process?
Loosen right shoulder strap and waist belt, shift SCBA until it is tucked under your left arm.
What do studs need to spaced at to breach a wall with a SCBA on?
16" (use a backward swimming motion)
Where should a pair of wire cutters be keep?
In a pocket that you can access even if your movement is limited.
Requires that RIT be standing by whenever firefighters are in a hazard zone. Must be at least 2 people and same PPE as those in hazard zone.
Mandatory RIT equipment can be remembered by using the word AWARE. What does AWARE stand for?
A= Air, W= water A & R= A Radio E= Extrication
After a MAYDAY is transmitted the RITs first job is to try to do what?
Establish radio communication with the downed firefighter.
Transceiver tracking devices operate on a 457 kHz and have a range of how long?
T or F Transceiver tracking devices use a low frequency radio signal. This allows them to not interfere with radios and the signal is not blocked by walls, floors, or other large objects.
T or F Transceivers have a standby mode and a search mode. In search mode a display shows the direction and distance to another transceiver or to a egress transceiver.
In most cases, exiting the IDLH atmosphere takes priority over what?
Stabilizing the firefighters injuries.