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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Terms Deck (56):
1

Photosynthetic pigments such as carotenoids and phycobiliproteins that aid chlorophyll in trapping light energy.

Accessory pigments

2

A combination of acetic acid and coenzyme A that is energy rich; it is produced by many catabolic pathwyas and is the substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid biosynthesis, and other pathways.

Acetyl-coenzyme A

3

A high-energy molecule formed from sulfite and adenosine monophosphate.

Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS)

4

A metabolic process in which molecules, often organic, are oxidized with oxygen as the final electron acceptor.

Aerobic respiration

5

A fermentation process that produces ethanol and CO2 from sugars.

Alcoholic fermentation

6

Metabolic pathways that function both catabolically and anabolically.

Amphibolic pathways

7

An energy-yielding process in which the electron transport chain acceptor is an inorganic molecule other than oxygen.

Anerobic respiration

8

Photosynthesis that does not oxidize water to produce oxygen; a form of photosynthesis characteristc of purple and green photosyntheitc bacteria and heliobacteria.

Anoxygenic photosynthesis

9

Chlorophylls and accessory pigments that are assembled in highly organized arrays.

Antenna

10

A multisubunit enzyme also known as F1F0 ATPase because it consists of two components and can catalyze ATP hydrolysis. The use of PMF for ATP synthesis is catalyzed by this.

ATP synthase

11

A modified chlorophyll that serves as the primary light-trapping pigment in purple and green photosyntheitc bacteria and heliobacteria.

Bacteriochlorophyll

12

A transmembranous protein to which the retinal is bound; it functions as a light-driven proton pump performing photophosphorylation without chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll. Found in the purple membrane of halophilic archea.

Bacteriorhodipsin

13

The major pathway of fatty acid oxidation to produce NADH, FADH2, and acetyl coenzyme A.

B-oxidation pathway

14

A type of fermentation most often found in the family Enterobacteriaceae in which 2,3-butanediol is a major product; acetoin is an intermediate in the pathway and may be detected by the Boges-Proskauer test.

Butanediol fermentation

15

Pigment molecules, usually yellowish, that are often used to aid chlorophyll in trapping light energy during photosynthesis.

Caroteniods

16

The hypothesis that a proton gradient and an electro-chemical gradient are generated by electron transport and then used to drive ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation.

Chemiosmostic hypothesis

17

These microbes obtain electrons for the electron transport chain from the oxidation of inorganic molecules rather than NADH generated by the oxidation of organic nutrients. The acceptor is usually O2, but sulfate and nitrate are also used. The most common electron donors are hydrogen, reduced nitrogen compounds, reduced sulfur compounds, and ferrous iron (Fe+2).

Chemilithotroph

18

The green photosynthetic pigment that consists of a large tetrapyrrole ring with a magnesium atom in the center.

Chlorophylls

19

Also known as the TCA cycle or the Krebs cycle. The cycle that oxidizes acetyl coenzyme A to CO2 and generates NADH and FADH2 for oxidation in the electron transport chain; the cycle also supplies carbon skeletons for biosynthesis.

Citric acid cycle

20

The formation of ATP when light energy is used to move electrons cyclically through an electron transport chain during photosynthesis; only photosystem I participates.

Cyclic photophosphorylation

21

The energy gained from the light reactions is used to reduce or fix CO2 and synthesize cell constituents in these reactions of photosynthesis.

Dark reactions

22

The removal of amino groups from amino acids.

Deamination

23

The reduction of nitrate to gaseous products, primarily nitrogen gas, during anaerobic respiration.

Denitrification

24

The process in which some bacteria use nitrate as the electron acceptor at the end of their electron transport chain to produce ATP. The nitrate is reduced to nitrite or nitrogen gas.

Dissimilatory nitrate reduction

25

A series of electron carriers that operate together to transfer electrons from donors such as NADH and FADH2 to acceptors such as oxygen. Also called an electron transport system.

Electron transport chain

26

A pathway that degrades glucose to pyruvate; the 6-carbon stage converts glucose to fructose 1,6-biphosphate, and the 3-carbon stage produces ATP while changing glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to pyruvate.

Embden-Meyerhof pathway

27

A pathway that converts glucose to pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate by producing 6-phosphoglucomate and then dehydrating it.

Entner-Doudoroff pathway

28

An energy-yielding process in which an organic molecule is oxidized without an exogenous electron acceptor. Usually pyruvate or a pyruvate derivative serves as the electron acceptor.

Fermentation

29

The conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid by use of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, pentose phosphate pathway, or Entner-Douderoff pathway.

Glycolysis

30

A pathway that converts glucose to pyruvic acid (ex, Embden-Meyerhof pathway).

Glycolytic pathway

31

Microorganisms that ferment sugars to form lactate, and also other products such as ethanol and CO2.

Heterolactic fermenters

32

Also known as the pentose phosphate pathway. The pathway that oxidizes glucose 6-phosphate to ribulose 5-phosphate and then converts it to a variety of three to seven carbon sugars; if gorms several importnat products (NADPH for biosynthesis, pentoses, and other sugars) and also can be used to degrade glucose to CO2.

Hexose monophosphate pathway

33

Organisms that ferment sugars almost completely to lactic acid.

Homolactic fermenters

34

A fermentation that produces lactic acid as the sole or primary product.

Lactic acid fermentation

35

Light energy is trapped and converted to chemical energy in these reactions of photosynthesis.

Light reactions

36

A type of fermentation carried out by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in which ethanol and a complex mixture of organic acids are produced.

Mixed acid fermentation

37

The oxidation of ammonia to nitrate.

Nitrification

38

Chemolithotrophic, gram-negative bacteria that are members of several families within the phyllum Proteobacteria that oxidize ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate.

Nitrifying bacteria

39

The process in which light energy is used to make ATP when electrons are moved from water to NADP+ during photosynthesis; both photosystem I and photosystem II are involved.

Noncyclic photophosphorylation

40

The synthesis of ATP from ADP using energy made available during electron transport initiated by the oxidation of a chemical energy source.

Oxidative phosphorylation

41

Photosynthesis that oxidizes water to form oxygen; the form of photosynthesis characteristic of plants, protists, and cyanobacteria.

Oxygenic photosyntheis

42

The trapping of lighter energy and its conversion to chemical energy, which is then used to reduce CO2 and incorporate it into organic form.

Photosynthesis

43

The photosystem in eucaryotic cells and cyanobacteria that absorbs longer wavelength light, usually greater than about 680nm, and transfers the energy to chlorophyll P680 during photosynthesis; it participates in noncyclic photophosphorylation.

Photosystem I

44

The photosystem in eucaryotic cells and cyanobacteria that absorbs shorter wavelength light, usually less than 680nm, and transfers the energy to chlorophyll P680 during photosynthesis; it participates in noncyclic photophosphorylation.

Photosystem II

45

Photosynthetic pigments that are composed of proteins with attached tetrapyrroles; they are found in cyanobacteria.

Phycobiliproteins

46

A blue phycobiliprotein pigment used to trap light energy during photosynthesis.

Phycocyanin

47

A red photosynthetic pigment used to trap light energy.

Phycoerythrin

48

An enzyme that hydrolyzes proteins to their constituent amino acids. Also called a proteinase.

Protease

49

The force arising from a gradient of protons and a membrane potential that is thought to power ATP synthesis and other processes.

Proton motive force (PMF)

50

A "special pair" directly involved in photosynthetic electron transport. Light energy captured by the antenna is transferred from chlorophyll to chlorophyll until it reaches this unit.

Reaction-center chlorophyll pair

51

An energy-yielding process in which the energy substrate is oxidized using an exogenous or externally derived electron acceptor.

Respiration

52

Movement of electrons derived from the oxidation of their inorganic substrate up the electron transport chain, instead of down, to reduce NAD(P)+ to NAD(P)H.

Reverse electron flow

53

Proteolytic clostridia carry out this reaction in which one amino acid is oxidized and a second amino acid acts as the electron acceptor.

Stickland reaction

54

The synthesis of ATP from ADP by phosphorylation coupled with the exergonic breakdown of a high-energy organic substrate molecule.

Substrate-level phosphorylation

55

The removal of amino acid's amino group by transferring it to an alpha-keto acid acceptor.

Transamination

56

A group of inhibitors that stop ATP synthesis without inhibiting electron transport itself.

Uncouplers