Chapter 9 -- The Distribution of Responsibility in Engineering Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 -- The Distribution of Responsibility in Engineering Deck (19):
1

collective responsibility

the responsibility of a collective of people

2

problem of many hands

the occurrence of the situation in which the collective can be reasonably held morally responsible for an outcome, while none of the individuals can be reasonably held responsible for that outcome

3

distribution of responsibility

the ascription or apportioning of individual responsibilities to various actors

4

moral fairness requirement

the requirement that a distribution of responsibility should be fair

5

moral fairness requirement (passive)

a person should only be held responsible if that person can be held responsible for wrong-doing, casual contribution, forseeability, and freedom of action

6

moral fairness requirement (active)

implying that persons should only be allocated responsibilities that they can live by

7

effectiveness requirement

the moral requirement that states that responsibility should be so distributed that the distribution has the best consequences, or is effective in preventing harm

8

liability

legal responsibility; backward-looking responsibility according to the law; usually related to the obligation to pay a fine or repair or repay damages

9

regulation

a legal tool that can forbid the development, production, or use of certain technological products, but more often it formulates a set of the boundary conditions for the design, production, and use of technologies

10

negligence

not living by certain duties; main condition for legal liability; to prove, usually must be given of a duty owed, a breach of that duty, an injury or damage, and a causal connection between the breach and the injury or damage

11

duty of care

legal obligation to adhere to a reasonable standard of care when performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others

12

strict liability

form of liability that does not require the defendant to be negligent

13

product liability

liability of manufacturers for defects in a product, without the need to prove that those manufacturers acted negligently

14

development risks

risks that could not have been foreseen given the state of scientific and technical knowledge at the time the product was put into circulation

15

corporate liability

liability of a company (corporation) when it is treated as a legal person

16

limited liability

the principle that the liability of shareholders for the corporation's debts and obligations is limited to the value of their shares

17

hierarchical responsibility model

model in which only the organization's top level of personnel is held responsible for the actions of (people in) the organization

18

collective responsibility model

the model in which every member of a collective body is held responsible for the actions of the other members of that same collective body

19

individual responsibility model

the model in which each individual is held responsible insofar as he or she meets the conditions for individual responsibility