Chapter 9 -- The Distribution of Responsibility in Engineering Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 -- The Distribution of Responsibility in Engineering Deck (19):

collective responsibility

the responsibility of a collective of people


problem of many hands

the occurrence of the situation in which the collective can be reasonably held morally responsible for an outcome, while none of the individuals can be reasonably held responsible for that outcome


distribution of responsibility

the ascription or apportioning of individual responsibilities to various actors


moral fairness requirement

the requirement that a distribution of responsibility should be fair


moral fairness requirement (passive)

a person should only be held responsible if that person can be held responsible for wrong-doing, casual contribution, forseeability, and freedom of action


moral fairness requirement (active)

implying that persons should only be allocated responsibilities that they can live by


effectiveness requirement

the moral requirement that states that responsibility should be so distributed that the distribution has the best consequences, or is effective in preventing harm



legal responsibility; backward-looking responsibility according to the law; usually related to the obligation to pay a fine or repair or repay damages



a legal tool that can forbid the development, production, or use of certain technological products, but more often it formulates a set of the boundary conditions for the design, production, and use of technologies



not living by certain duties; main condition for legal liability; to prove, usually must be given of a duty owed, a breach of that duty, an injury or damage, and a causal connection between the breach and the injury or damage


duty of care

legal obligation to adhere to a reasonable standard of care when performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others


strict liability

form of liability that does not require the defendant to be negligent


product liability

liability of manufacturers for defects in a product, without the need to prove that those manufacturers acted negligently


development risks

risks that could not have been foreseen given the state of scientific and technical knowledge at the time the product was put into circulation


corporate liability

liability of a company (corporation) when it is treated as a legal person


limited liability

the principle that the liability of shareholders for the corporation's debts and obligations is limited to the value of their shares


hierarchical responsibility model

model in which only the organization's top level of personnel is held responsible for the actions of (people in) the organization


collective responsibility model

the model in which every member of a collective body is held responsible for the actions of the other members of that same collective body


individual responsibility model

the model in which each individual is held responsible insofar as he or she meets the conditions for individual responsibility