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Flashcards in Chapter II terminology Deck (45):
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Corporate colonies

Operated by joint-stock companies during colonies' early years e.g. Jamestown

1

Royal colonies

Under direct authority and rule of the king's government e.g. Virginia post 1624

2

Proprietary colonies

Under the authority of individuals that were granted charters of ownership by the king e.g. Maryland and Pennsylvania.

3

Chesapeake colonies

Maryland and Virginia were the colonies surrounding Chesapeake Bay. They were originally proprietary colonies.

4

Cecil Calvert

Implemented the Act of Toleration in Maryland

5

George Calvert

Controlled the first proprietary colony, Maryland.

6

Act of Toleration

The first colonial statute granting religious freedom to all Christians. Called for the death of anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus.

7

Virginia

The first of England's colonies

8

Sir William Berkeley

Governor of Virginia that adopted policies that favored large plantation owners and used dictatorial powers to govern in their behalf.

9

Bacon's Rebellion

Highlighted class differences between wealthy planters and landless or poor farmers and highlighted colonial resistance to royal control. It was a response to Berkeley's economic and political control in Virginia.

10

Headright system

Virginia offered 50 acres of land to immigrants that paid for their passage or plantation owners who paid an immigrant's passage.

11

Roger Williams

Boston Puritan minister that believed individual's conscience was beyond the control of civil and church authorities.

12

Providence

Founded by Roger Williams. Recognized Native American rights and paid them for land use and provided religious tolerance.

13

Anne Hutchinson

Believed in antinomianism and founded Portsmouth.

14

Antinomianism

The idea that faith alone, not deeds, is necessary for salvation

15

Rhode Island

Proprietary colony that combined Providence and Portsmouth.

16

Thomas Hooker

Led a group of Boston Puritans into the Connecticut River Valley and founded Hartford

17

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

First written constitution in American History. Established a representative government with a legislature elected by popular vote and a governor chosen by that legislature.

18

John Davenport

Founded New Haven south of Harthford

19

Connecticut

A colony consisting of New Haven and Hartford. Had a limited degree of self government including the election of governor.

20

New Hampshire

Last founded colony of New England. Was separated from Massachusetts.

21

Halfway covenant

Allowed people to join church services and activities without making a formal declaration of total belief in Christ.

22

New England Confederation

A military alliance between Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Haven. Led by two representatives from each colony and established a precedent for colonies taking unified actions for a common purpose

23

Wampanoags

Tribes in southern New England that united against English settlers.

24

Metacom (king Phillip)

Led the Wampanoags against English settlers

25

Restoration colonies

The American colonies founded in the late 17th century during a period in English history known as the Restoration (Carolinas, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Georgia)

26

The Carolinas

Granted to eight nobles, the lord proprietors, by Charles II

27

Rice plantations (South Carolina)

Changed the southern economy to one that resembled the economy and culture of the West Indies

28

Tobacco farms (North Carolina)

Fewer large plantations and less reliance in slavery compared to South Carolina. Farmers from Virginia and South Carolina

29

New York

The Duke of York (James II) took control of the Dutch colony but allowed the Dutch to worship freely and speak their own language.

30

New Jersey

Split from New York and given to two proprietors. After years of inaccurate property lines, East and West Jersey were combined into one New Jersey.

31

Pennsylvania

An expanse of forested land originally settled by Quakers

32

Quakers

The Religious Society of Friends believed in equality of all men and women, nonviolence, resistance to military service and religious authority founded by each person's private soul. Quakers were a Christian sect.

33

William Penn

A young Quaker convert that was given a land grant for his father's military service. William called his colony Pennsylvania.

34

The Holy Expiriment

Proposed by William Penn to provide religious refuge for persecuted people, enact liberal ideas in government, and generate income and profits for himself.

35

Frame of Government (1682-1683)

Guaranteed a representative assembly elected by land owners and a written constitution (the Charter of Liberties)

36

The Charter of Liberties

Guaranteed freedom of worship and unrestricted immigration.

37

Delaware

Penn granted the lower three counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly.

38

Georgia

Chartered as a defensive buffer for South Carolina's plantations and relieved overcrowded British jails of people in debt.

39

James Oglethorpe

Was Georgia's first governor and enacted an absolute ban on slavery and drinking Rum

40

Mercantilism

Looked upon trade, colonies, and the accumulation if wealth as the basis for a country's military and political strength. Colonies existed only to to enrich the parent country.

41

Navigation Acts

The colonies could only trade specified goods with Britain, imported good had to pass through ports in England, and only British or colonial crews could operate ships into and out from the colonies.

42

Dominion of New England

James II (king of England) united New York, New Jersey, and various New England colonies into a single unit to increase royal control over the colonies until the Glorious Revolution.

43

Sir Edmund Andros

Governed the Dominion of New England and levied taxes, limited town meetings, and revoked land titles.

44

Glorious revolution

Disposed James II and ended the Dominion of New England