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Flashcards in Chapter III Terminology Deck (35):
0

English immigrants

With few problems at home, their numbers were relatively small

1

German immigrants

Settled mainly on rich farmlands west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Maintained language, customs, and Lutheran religion. By 1775, comprised 6% of colonial pop.

2

Scottish-Irish immigrants

Little respect for British government. Settled along frontier on western parts of Pennsylvania, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. By 1775, comprised 7% of colonial population

3

Other immigrants

Included French Protestants (Huguenots), the Dutch, and the Swedes. Comprise 5% of colonial populations by 1775

4

African immigrants

African-Americans comprised 20% of colonial population. 90% lived in southern colonies as life long slaves.

5

Dominance of English Culture

A great majority of the population was English in origin, tradition, and language.

6

Self-government

All colonies elected a representative assembly.

7

Religious Toleration

All permitted freedom but of varying degrees. Massachusetts (least tolerant) excluded non Christians and Catholics but accepted many Protestants. RI and Pennsylvania were most liberal.

8

No Hereditary Aristocracy

Class system was based on economics, not hereditary. All but Africans had opportunity to improve standard of living and social status.

9

Families

Economic and social center of colonial life. People married young and had more children. 90%+ of people lived in farms.

10

Men

Husband has unlimited power in the home and men were the primary landowners.

11

Women

Average wife bore 8 children. Divorce was legal but rare. Women had limited legal and political rights. Shared labors and mutual dependence with husbands protected women from abuse and gave them a role in decision-making.

12

Economy in New England

Logging, ship building, fishing, trading, and rum-distilling because rocky soil and long winters led to poor farming

13

Economy in the Middle Colonies

Rich soil produced wheat and corn. Farms up to 200 acres were common. Indentured servants and hired laborers worked with families.

14

Economy in the Southern Colonies

Farms grew to over 2000 acres. Chesapeake and NC: tobacco SC and Georgia: rice and indigo Carolinas: timber, tar, and pitch

15

Monetary system

The English limited the use of hard money and vetoed laws that hurt English merchants.

16

Established Churches

Protestant churches supported by colonial taxes. Church of England (Anglican Church) in Virginia and congressional church (Puritan) in Massachusetts and Connecticut

17

The Great Awakening

Strongest in the 1730s and and 1740s. Movement characterized by strong expression of religious feelings among masses of people. People depended more on the bible making church officials less important

18

Jonathan Edwards

Initiated the Great Awakening with sermons in a Congressional church in Northampton, Massachusetts. "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" was one sermon.

19

George Whitefield

Traveled around colonial America igniting the Awakening with sermons on the torments of the damned

20

Georgian style of London

Colonial houses, churches, and public buildings imitated it with brick and stucco homes.

21

Benjamin West and John Copley

American artists trained in England

22

Cotton Mather

A minister who wrote widely read religious tracts

23

Benjamin Franklin

An American writer of the 18th century. He also worked with electricity, more practical bifocal glasses, and the Franklin stove.

24

Poor Richard's Almanack

A book that collected Benjamin Franklin's aphorisms and advice

25

Sectarian

Something that exists to promote the doctrines of a particular religious sect.

26

John Peter Zenger

A NY editor and publisher that was brought to trial for criticizing New York's royal governor. The jury ignored the law and newspapers took greater risks.

27

Andrew Hamilton

Argued for John Zenger's libel case stating he had printed the truth about the governor.

28

What governors were appointed by the king?

The governors of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

29

What governors were appointed by proprietors?

The governors of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.

30

What governors were elected by popular vote?

The governors of Connecticut, and Rhode Island

31

What were the two house of legislature?

The lower house (or assembly) elected by voters to vote for or against new taxes and the upper house (or council) appointed by the king or the proprietor (or colonists in Connecticut and Rhode Island)

32

Town meeting

Provided New England a dominant form of local government that was not present in southern countries.

33

Limited democracy

The colonies allowed voting but only to land owning white men.

34

What was J. Hector St. John Crevecoeur's "new man"?

An American who entertains new ideas, forms new opinions, and passed the toils of involuntary idleness, servile dependence, and useless labor.