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Flashcards in Chapter Nine Deck (37):
1

Four Principles of Effective Communication

Language must be clear,
Language must be responsible,
Language must be culturally-sensitive,
Language must be congruent.

2

Abstract Language

Language which is vague.

3

False Consensus Bias

Our mistaken assumption that others see things the same way we do.

4

Relative Language

Words or phrases that "gain their meaning by comparison."

5

Static Language

Language that implies that a situation or person is always the same.

6

Fundamental Attribution Error

Our human tendency to assume that other people's behaviour is due to something about their personality, while at the same time failing to consider possible situational ifluences.

7

Overgeneralization

Exaggerating the frequency of an event, or making broad assumptions based on limited evidence.

8

Perception-checking

A three-part statement you make to another person when you need clarification of something the person said or did.

9

You-language

Language that implies blame on the other person.

10

I-language

Language that takes responsibility for the impact the other person's behaviour has on you, rather than simply scolding or casting blame.

11

Fallacy of Cuausation

We blame someone else for our own feelings

12

Relationship Climates

The degree to which we fee safe, supported, and understood in a relationship. Also referred to as relationship climate or communication climate.

13

Behavioural Description

Clear, specific, and factual description of a person's behaviour.

14

Emotional Description

To state the emotion you felt when the behaviour occurred.

15

Anatomy of an I-statement

Behavioural description (Yesterday when I told you my parents were coming to dinner tonight, you offered to clean the kitchen today so i would look nice).
Emotional Descriptor (I am upset and stressed).
Consequence (Because it's still dirty and they'll be here in an hour!)

16

Individualistic/Collectivistic

A value system based on the relative importance of the individual versus the group or family.

17

Monochronic Cultures

Individualistic in nature, value time efficiency most highly.

18

Polychronic Cultures

Refers to one way a culture views the concept of time. Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa are examples of places where there is a flexible approach to time and schedules. Often collectivist, value interpersonal relationships most highly.

19

Context

The personalities, cultural backgrounds, and situational factors involved in each interaction.

20

High-context Communication

Communication that relies more heavily on attention to contextualize details and less on explicit language to transmit its message.

21

Saving Face

A communication strategy of indirect communication aimed at helping others preserve their dignity and avoid embarrassment or humiliation.

22

Low-context Communication

Relies on clear, concrete, and explicit language.

23

Elaborate Language

Uses many words to convey its message and is very colourful and expressive.

24

Exacting Communication

Clear and specific language that states the facts, and no more.

25

Succinct Communication

Understand language that says very little and relies on the listener to understand the unspoken meaning.

26

Instrumental Communication

Task-oriented, and focuses on achieving the speaker's goal.

27

Affective Communication

Person-oriented; focuses on building and maintaining good relations between the communicators.

28

Common Gender Differences In Communication

Men:
Problem-solving
Big picture

Women:
Empathy
Details

Both:
Asking for help
Use of questions

29

Problem-Solving (Men) vs. Empathy (Women)

Problem-solving - Men's conversation often revolves around problem-solving.
Empathy - Women are more likely aimed at promoting empathy.

30

Big Picture (Men) vs. Details (Women)

Big Picture - For men the "big picture" is what's most important; details are not only distracting, but slow things down.
Details - Women tend to give and expect more details. For women, details are necessary in order to truly understand or empathize with a person.

31

Asking for Help (Men vs. Women)

Men highly value achievement and status, so asking for help may risk sending a message that you don't know what you're doing. As a result, men are often uncomfortable asking for help.
Women, on the other hand, are taught to believe that asking for help is perfectly acceptable between you and the person who is helping, and that's what it's all about in that world!

32

Use of Questions (Men vs. Women)

For men, a question is a direct request for information in the form of a straight answer.
Women use questions more indirectly -specifically, to make requests or to state needs.

33

Personal Space

The comfortable amount of distance between people in conversation.

34

Body Orientation

The direction your body is facing relative to those with whom you are interacting.

35

Paralanguage

Communication that is verbal, but wordless.

36

Contact Cultures

Tend to engage in more open contact with each other and use nonverbal cues to signal warmth, closeness, and availability.

37

Power Distance

Examines how a culture deals with the basic issue of human inequality.