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Flashcards in Chapter One Deck (16):

When and why were atoms first seen?

1981 with the newly invented scanning tunnelling microscope


who proposed the first nuclear model of an atom, and how was it described?

Rutherford in 1911 and that it contained mostly empty space with a dense centre called a nucleus


What did Bohr model contain?

orbital electrons that were negatively charged and a nucleus containing positively charged prions


What did Chadwick add to Bohr's model?

He added neutrons to the nucleus but the rest remained unchanged. This is now the current model used called the Chadwick-Bohr Model


What are protons, electrons and neutrons?

Subatomic particles


How big is a nanometre?

one billionth of ammeter: nm = 10^−9 m.


How big is a micrometre

one millionth of a metre: μm = 10^−6 m.


How big is a millimetre?

one thousandth of a metre: mm = 10^−3 m.


covert 1m to cm, mm, µm and nm

1 m = 10^2 cm = 10^3 mm = 10^6 µm = 10^9 nm


What is the isotopic symbol?

23. Na


What is an isotope?

atoms of the same element can contain different numbers of neutrons, thus having different mass numbers


What is the atomic emission spectrum?

The rainbow present through the prism thingy


Explain energy levels and what happens to the electrons?

An orbiting electron cannot lose every but it can gain excess energy (by a flame or electrical charge). If this happens the electron is able to move to a higher orbit, from its original ground state to its now excited state. When this energy is used and it drops back down to its ground state the energy is given out as a photon. this is seen as a line of a particular colour on the visibility spectrum (the black thingy)


Electrons may be visualised as moving within a region of space surrounding the nucleus. What are these regions called?

K (west energy level), L, M and N (highest energy level) and numbered 1,2,3 and 4


What is the general order of sub shells?

1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s < 4f < 5d < 6p…


What happens to the electron configuration when an atom is in its excited state?

the configuration doesn't follow the regular pattern, the outer most electrons move to a higher energy sub shell