Flashcards in Chapter Two and Three Deck (40):
Where are nutrients stored?
Earth's atmosphere, land masses, oceans
Biotic process that allow nutrients to flow through stores
Abiotic process that allow nutrients to flow through stores
What is photosynthesis
Carbon from atmosphere enters the leaves and reacts with water to produce sugar and oxygen
Describe the process of cellular respiration
Energy is released within a critter's cells which help with growth, repair, and reproduction. The carbon is released as a waste product.
What does decomposition do?
Decomposers break down dead organic matter and convert it into Carbon dioxide.
What is nitrogen fixation?
The process where nitrogen is converted into compounds that contain nitrogen or ammonium.
What is denitrification?
When nitrogen is returned back into the atmosphere
What is eutrophication
The preocess where excess nutrients result in an increase of plant production
Why is the carbon cycle important?
Essential component to sustain life.
How is carbon stored?
soil, plants, ocean, decaying organic matter, atmosphere.
How is carbon cycled?
photosynthesis, volcanic eruptions, decomposition
Why is the phosphorus cycle important?
Carries energy to plant/animal cells
How is phosphorus stored?
Ocean floors and rocks
How is phosphorus cycled?
plants take phosphorus and animals eat plants
Why is the nitrogen cycle important
essential for life processes in cells
How is nitrogen stored?
In atmosphere, oceans, soil
How is nitrogen cycled?
Process that makes nitrogen available to plants
What is ecological succession?
The gradual change in species that occupy a given area
What is climax community?
Where all organisms are in balance with each other and abiotic factors.
Nothing to something
Something to nearly nothing to something
What is speciation and when does it occur?
Process where new species evolve from old ones.
Populations become isolated from each other and the two populations can no longer interbreed
When does Geographical isolation occur?
When natural or man-made barriers appear between species
What are the steps for speciaton?
(I Nuke Green Peas)
What are Darwin's Finches?
One finch population in one island. Second finch on second island. Both adapt to their island and become different.
The special role an organism plays in an ecosystem including the way it contributes/fits into the environment, as wells as all the interactions it needs in order to grow/survive/reproduce
Pyramid of energy
Shows amount of energy at each trophic level
Pyramid of Biomass
Shows the number of organisms at each trophic level multiplied by their mass
Pyramid of Numbers
Shows the number of organisms at each trophic level
Special traits that help living organisms survive/reproduce in an ecosystem
physical traits on a critter's body
Physical/chemical event that takes place inside the body of an organism
Actions an organism takes in order to survive.
Includes how it: Mates, feeds, and cares for young.
The process where chemicals become more concentrated at each trophic level.
The build-up of chemicals in an organism
What are the four components to natural selection?
(Vultures Can Fight Anyone)
Variation (slightly different)
Competition (Struggle for existence)
Fitness (different traits)
Adaption (Can change, will change)
What are invasive species?
Organisms that take over a habitat and unbalance the life of the native living things
Name an invasive species and describe the affect it has
The Norway Rat.
Came from early European explorer ships.
Well adapted to every environment and can eat nearly everything.
Caused in decline of ground-nesting sea birds such as puffins as rats like to eat eggs and baby puffins.