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Flashcards in Chapter Two and Three Deck (40):
1

Where are nutrients stored?

Earth's atmosphere, land masses, oceans

2

Biotic process that allow nutrients to flow through stores

Decomposition

3

Abiotic process that allow nutrients to flow through stores

River run-off

4

What is photosynthesis

Carbon from atmosphere enters the leaves and reacts with water to produce sugar and oxygen

5

Describe the process of cellular respiration

Energy is released within a critter's cells which help with growth, repair, and reproduction. The carbon is released as a waste product.

6

What does decomposition do?

Decomposers break down dead organic matter and convert it into Carbon dioxide.

7

What is nitrogen fixation?

The process where nitrogen is converted into compounds that contain nitrogen or ammonium.

8

What is denitrification?

When nitrogen is returned back into the atmosphere

9

What is eutrophication

The preocess where excess nutrients result in an increase of plant production

10

Why is the carbon cycle important?

Essential component to sustain life.

11

How is carbon stored?

soil, plants, ocean, decaying organic matter, atmosphere.

12

How is carbon cycled?

photosynthesis, volcanic eruptions, decomposition

13

Why is the phosphorus cycle important?

Carries energy to plant/animal cells

14

How is phosphorus stored?

Ocean floors and rocks

15

How is phosphorus cycled?

plants take phosphorus and animals eat plants

16

Why is the nitrogen cycle important

essential for life processes in cells

17

How is nitrogen stored?

In atmosphere, oceans, soil

18

How is nitrogen cycled?

Process that makes nitrogen available to plants

19

What is ecological succession?

The gradual change in species that occupy a given area

20

What is climax community?

Where all organisms are in balance with each other and abiotic factors.

21

Primary succession

Nothing to something

22

Secondary succession

Something to nearly nothing to something

23

What is speciation and when does it occur?

Process where new species evolve from old ones.
Populations become isolated from each other and the two populations can no longer interbreed

24

When does Geographical isolation occur?

When natural or man-made barriers appear between species

25

What are the steps for speciaton?

(I Nuke Green Peas)

Isolation
Natural Selection
Gene Pools
Physical/Geographical Barriers

26

What are Darwin's Finches?

One finch population in one island. Second finch on second island. Both adapt to their island and become different.

27

Niche

The special role an organism plays in an ecosystem including the way it contributes/fits into the environment, as wells as all the interactions it needs in order to grow/survive/reproduce

28

Pyramid of energy

Shows amount of energy at each trophic level

29

Pyramid of Biomass

Shows the number of organisms at each trophic level multiplied by their mass

30

Pyramid of Numbers

Shows the number of organisms at each trophic level

31

Adaption

Special traits that help living organisms survive/reproduce in an ecosystem

32

Structural Adaptaion

physical traits on a critter's body

33

Physiological Adaption

Physical/chemical event that takes place inside the body of an organism

34

Behavioural Adaption

Actions an organism takes in order to survive.
Includes how it: Mates, feeds, and cares for young.

35

Biomagnification

The process where chemicals become more concentrated at each trophic level.

36

Bioaccumulation

The build-up of chemicals in an organism

37

What are the four components to natural selection?

(Vultures Can Fight Anyone)

Variation (slightly different)
Competition (Struggle for existence)
Fitness (different traits)
Adaption (Can change, will change)

38

What are invasive species?

Organisms that take over a habitat and unbalance the life of the native living things

39

Name an invasive species and describe the affect it has

The Norway Rat.
Came from early European explorer ships.
Well adapted to every environment and can eat nearly everything.
Caused in decline of ground-nesting sea birds such as puffins as rats like to eat eggs and baby puffins.

40

Bioremediation

The use of introducing living things to clean chemical pollutants naturally