Chapter13 Patient Assessment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter13 Patient Assessment Deck (71)
1

Identified by no chest wall movement and no sensation or sound of air moving in/out of the nose or mouth.

Apnea

2

breathing of fluids into the lungs

Aspiration

3

What is the mnemonic for Assessment of Mental Alertness?

AVPU
A= Alert
V = Responds to verbal stimulus
P= Responds to pain stimulus
U= Unresponsive

4

Trauma that is caused by a force that impacts or is applied to the body but is not sharp enough to penetrate.

blunt trauma

5

trauma that is a force that pierces the skin and body tissues, i.e knives, gunshots, tools, etc.

Penetrating trauma

6

what is it when brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood vessels are moved or pressed away from their usual position inside the skull?

brain herniation

7

What is a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and provides the organ with protection and support?

cerebrospinal fluid

8

When a patient answer the question " Why did you call EMS today"

chief complaint

9

Difficult or labored breathing; shortness of breath is called?

dyspnea

10

involuntary flexion or extension of the arms and legs, indicating severe brain injury that is associated with compression of the lower brain stem is known as?

extension posturing (decerebrate posturing)

11

indicating severe brain injury that is associated with compression of the upper brain stem and causes patient to arches the back and flexes the arms inward toward the chest is known as?

flexion posturing (decorticate posturing)

12

the patient (or trauma professional) is restrained from moving the cervical spine.

in-line stabilization

13

an exam focused on a specific injury site

modified secondary assessment

14

To cause to become closed; obstruct: occlude an artery. 2. To prevent the passage of: occlude

occluded

15

What is dyspnea (shortness of breath) that occurs while lying down.
It is often a sign of heart failure

orthopnea

16

a type of breathing in which all or part of a lung inflates during inspiration and balloons out during expiration; the opposite of normal chest motion

paradoxical movement

17

open, unobstructed, or not closed.

patent

18

a rapid, initial examination of a patient to recognize and manage all immediate life-threatening conditions

primary assessment

19

rapid head-to-toe exam

rapid secondary assessment

20

what is known as conduct that follows the secondary assessment

reassessment

21

a continuation of the primary assessment, where the medical professional obtains vital signs, reassesses changes in the patient's condition, and performs appropriate physical examinations.

secondary assessment

22

what is the mnemonic for pain assessment.

.Onset – Did the pain start suddenly or gradually get worse and worse?

Provokes/Palliates – Does anything make the pain better or worse?

Quality – What does the pain feel like?

Radiates – Point to where it hurts the most. Does the pain go anywhere from there?

Severity – How would you rate your pain on a scale of 0 to 10?

Time – How long have you had the pain?

23

what is the mnemonic to remember specific soft tissue injuries to look for during a person's assessment after a traumatic injury.

DCAPBTLS

D-Deformity
C-Contusion
A-Abrasion
P-Puncture/Penetrating
B-Burns
T-Tenderness
L-Laceration &
S-Swelling

24

what is the mnemonic to remember key questions for a person's assessment.

S-Signs & symptoms
A-Allergies
M-Medications
P- Past medical history
L-Last oral intake
E-Events leading to this episode

25

What the components of forming a general impression?

Estimate the patients age.
Note the patients sex.
Determine if the patient is a trauma or medical patient.
Obtain the patients chief complaint.
Identify (& mange) immediate life threats.

26

What life threats require immediate attention if found while forming a general impression.

- An airway compromised by vomitus, blood, secretion, tongue, teeth or any other objects.
- Obvious open wounds to the chest.
- Paradoxical movement of a segment of the chest.
- Major bleeding
-Unresponsive with no breathing or no normal breathing.

27

Pinch that extends from along the base of the neck to the shoulders

Trapezius Pinch

28

Pressure applied with finger under the upper ridge of the eye socket

Supraorbital pressure

29

hard downward pressure to the center of the sternum with knuckles

Sternal rub

30

pinch of the soft tissue of the earlobe

Earlobe pinch

31

Pinch of the skin & underlying tissue along the margin of the arm pit

Armpit pinch

32

Example of peripheral pain stimuli

Nail bed pressure, pinch between the web of thumb/index figure, and pinch figure, toe, hand, or foot

33

What do you watch for when applying painful stimulus?

facial grimace, purposeful/non-purposeful movement

34

What is purposeful movement?

an attempt made by the patient to stop painful stimulus (pushes away, grabs hands, etc)

35

What is non-purposeful movement?

movement made by patients with severe spinal or head injuries, i.e. flexion posturing and extension posturing

36

low oxygen levels causes a patient to become agitated and anxious this is known as

hypoxia

37

high carbon dioxide levels cause a patient to become confused and sleepy this is known as

hypercapnia

38

What sounds indicate an airway obstruction

Snoring - rough, snoring-type sound on inspiration/exhalation
Gurgling - a sound similar to rushing water on inspiration/exhalation
crowing- a sound like cawing crow on inspiration
Stridor - harsh, high-pitched sounds on inspiration

39

What is the best method to assess breathing?

looking, listening, & feeling

40

inadequate rate or inadequate tidal volume = ?

inadequate breathing

41

adequate rate and adequate tidal volume = ?

adequate breathing

42

Poor movement (rise) chest wall, indicating not air is being breathed in with each inspiration

inadequate tidal volume

43

breathing that is to fast or to slow (outside the range of 8-24 adults and 15-30 child, 25-50 infant)

abnormal respiratory rate

44

condition of reduced rate of breathing. It indicates the person is not taking sufficient amounts of oxygen while breathing. If the breathing rate is below 12 breaths for one minute

bradypena

45

Because the brain cells require a constant supply of oxygen an altered metal status may be an early sign of ?

Hypoxia

46

When the respiratory rate is greater than 40 per minute in the adult, the time for the lungs to fil is so short that the tidal volume will become in adequate and the patient will become ?

Hypoxic

47

on average an elderly person respiratory rate is ? per minute

20

48

cool, pale, clammy (moist) skin is an early sign of

hypoxia

49

a late sign of hypoxia is

cyanosis

50

respiratory rate that is to fast

tacyhpnea

51

Chemorecptors constantly monitor the amount of ________and_______in arterial blood.
the body increase respiratory rate in attempt to eliminate___________?

carbon dioxide and oxygen

carbon dioxide

52

Asymmetrical movement of the chest wall is AN IDICATION OF WHAT

SIGNIFICANT CHEST INJURY

53

the uncomfortable sensation of breathing difficulty is produced when the oxygen demands of the cell are not being met by the respiratory or circulation system is known as

dyspnea

54

when must you apply positive pressure ventilation supplemented with oxygen

if a patient is apneic (not breathing) or is inadequately breathing

55

the method that pushes air and oxygen into the lungs is known as

positive pressure ventilation

56

positive ventilation can be achieved by

mouth-to-mask, bag-valve-mask, or flow restricted, oxygen-powered device

57

In patients that are breathing adequately, when is oxygen therapy recommended ?

signs of
hypoxia, hypoxemia, poor perfusion, heart failure, respiratory distress, patient complaining of dyspnea and with SpO2 reading lower than 94%

58

how is oxygen therapy usually delivered

nasal cannula 2 to 4 Ipm

59

a patient with an SpO2 of <94% should be considered___________and given________

hypoxic supplemental oxygen

60

elderly patients commonly have a irregularly irregular heart rhythms that is

an irregular or abnormal rhythm that has no regular pattern

61

Bradycardia an ominous sign of hypoxia in

infants and children

62

tachycardia is a heart rate of greater than

100per min

63

a heart rate of greater than 100 per min is a sign of

anxiety, blood loss, shock, abnormal heart rhythms, heart attack, early hypoxia, fever, medical or traumatic conditions

64

patients perfusion can be checked by checking

skin color, temperature, and condition

65

pale and mottled skin

indicates a decrease in perfusion and the on set of shock

patient is losing blood

66

Cyanotic skin

bluish grey skin
may indicate patient has chest injury, blood loss or has pneumonia or pulmonary edema

67

why does the skin of hypoxic patients appear blue

hemoglobin in red blood cells changes color when starve of oxygen

68

red skin

increase in amount of blood circulating in the blood vessels of the skin

indicator of anaphylactic shock, saogenic shock, poisoning, overdose, alcohol ingestion, inflammation cold exposure and heat stroke

69

yellow skin

liver dysfunction

70

treat shock patients with positive pressure ventilation with supplement oxygen at _______ with a _____________mask.

15 Ipm non-rebreather

71

what is the mnemonic to remember

OPQRST
O-Onset
P-Provocation/Palliation
Q-Quality
R Radiation/region
S-Severity
T-timing