Chapter13 Patient Assessment Flashcards Preview

Prehospital Emergency Care > Chapter13 Patient Assessment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter13 Patient Assessment Deck (71)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Identified by no chest wall movement and no sensation or sound of air moving in/out of the nose or mouth.

A

Apnea

2
Q

breathing of fluids into the lungs

A

Aspiration

3
Q

What is the mnemonic for Assessment of Mental Alertness?

A
AVPU
A= Alert
V = Responds to verbal stimulus
P= Responds to pain stimulus
U= Unresponsive
4
Q

Trauma that is caused by a force that impacts or is applied to the body but is not sharp enough to penetrate.

A

blunt trauma

5
Q

trauma that is a force that pierces the skin and body tissues, i.e knives, gunshots, tools, etc.

A

Penetrating trauma

6
Q

what is it when brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood vessels are moved or pressed away from their usual position inside the skull?

A

brain herniation

7
Q

What is a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and provides the organ with protection and support?

A

cerebrospinal fluid

8
Q

When a patient answer the question “ Why did you call EMS today”

A

chief complaint

9
Q

Difficult or labored breathing; shortness of breath is called?

A

dyspnea

10
Q

involuntary flexion or extension of the arms and legs, indicating severe brain injury that is associated with compression of the lower brain stem is known as?

A

extension posturing (decerebrate posturing)

11
Q

indicating severe brain injury that is associated with compression of the upper brain stem and causes patient to arches the back and flexes the arms inward toward the chest is known as?

A

flexion posturing (decorticate posturing)

12
Q

the patient (or trauma professional) is restrained from moving the cervical spine.

A

in-line stabilization

13
Q

an exam focused on a specific injury site

A

modified secondary assessment

14
Q

To cause to become closed; obstruct: occlude an artery. 2. To prevent the passage of: occlude

A

occluded

15
Q

What is dyspnea (shortness of breath) that occurs while lying down.
It is often a sign of heart failure

A

orthopnea

16
Q

a type of breathing in which all or part of a lung inflates during inspiration and balloons out during expiration; the opposite of normal chest motion

A

paradoxical movement

17
Q

open, unobstructed, or not closed.

A

patent

18
Q

a rapid, initial examination of a patient to recognize and manage all immediate life-threatening conditions

A

primary assessment

19
Q

rapid head-to-toe exam

A

rapid secondary assessment

20
Q

what is known as conduct that follows the secondary assessment

A

reassessment

21
Q

a continuation of the primary assessment, where the medical professional obtains vital signs, reassesses changes in the patient’s condition, and performs appropriate physical examinations.

A

secondary assessment

22
Q

what is the mnemonic for pain assessment.

A

.Onset – Did the pain start suddenly or gradually get worse and worse?

Provokes/Palliates – Does anything make the pain better or worse?

Quality – What does the pain feel like?

Radiates – Point to where it hurts the most. Does the pain go anywhere from there?

Severity – How would you rate your pain on a scale of 0 to 10?

Time – How long have you had the pain?

23
Q

what is the mnemonic to remember specific soft tissue injuries to look for during a person’s assessment after a traumatic injury.

A

DCAPBTLS

D-Deformity
C-Contusion
A-Abrasion
P-Puncture/Penetrating 
B-Burns
T-Tenderness
L-Laceration & 
S-Swelling
24
Q

what is the mnemonic to remember key questions for a person’s assessment.

A
S-Signs & symptoms
A-Allergies
M-Medications
P- Past medical history
L-Last oral intake
E-Events leading to this episode
25
Q

What the components of forming a general impression?

A

Estimate the patients age.
Note the patients sex.
Determine if the patient is a trauma or medical patient.
Obtain the patients chief complaint.
Identify (& mange) immediate life threats.

26
Q

What life threats require immediate attention if found while forming a general impression.

A
  • An airway compromised by vomitus, blood, secretion, tongue, teeth or any other objects.
  • Obvious open wounds to the chest.
  • Paradoxical movement of a segment of the chest.
  • Major bleeding
  • Unresponsive with no breathing or no normal breathing.
27
Q

Pinch that extends from along the base of the neck to the shoulders

A

Trapezius Pinch

28
Q

Pressure applied with finger under the upper ridge of the eye socket

A

Supraorbital pressure

29
Q

hard downward pressure to the center of the sternum with knuckles

A

Sternal rub

30
Q

pinch of the soft tissue of the earlobe

A

Earlobe pinch

31
Q

Pinch of the skin & underlying tissue along the margin of the arm pit

A

Armpit pinch

32
Q

Example of peripheral pain stimuli

A

Nail bed pressure, pinch between the web of thumb/index figure, and pinch figure, toe, hand, or foot

33
Q

What do you watch for when applying painful stimulus?

A

facial grimace, purposeful/non-purposeful movement

34
Q

What is purposeful movement?

A

an attempt made by the patient to stop painful stimulus (pushes away, grabs hands, etc)

35
Q

What is non-purposeful movement?

A

movement made by patients with severe spinal or head injuries, i.e. flexion posturing and extension posturing

36
Q

low oxygen levels causes a patient to become agitated and anxious this is known as

A

hypoxia

37
Q

high carbon dioxide levels cause a patient to become confused and sleepy this is known as

A

hypercapnia

38
Q

What sounds indicate an airway obstruction

A

Snoring - rough, snoring-type sound on inspiration/exhalation
Gurgling - a sound similar to rushing water on inspiration/exhalation
crowing- a sound like cawing crow on inspiration
Stridor - harsh, high-pitched sounds on inspiration

39
Q

What is the best method to assess breathing?

A

looking, listening, & feeling

40
Q

inadequate rate or inadequate tidal volume = ?

A

inadequate breathing

41
Q

adequate rate and adequate tidal volume = ?

A

adequate breathing

42
Q

Poor movement (rise) chest wall, indicating not air is being breathed in with each inspiration

A

inadequate tidal volume

43
Q

breathing that is to fast or to slow (outside the range of 8-24 adults and 15-30 child, 25-50 infant)

A

abnormal respiratory rate

44
Q

condition of reduced rate of breathing. It indicates the person is not taking sufficient amounts of oxygen while breathing. If the breathing rate is below 12 breaths for one minute

A

bradypena

45
Q

Because the brain cells require a constant supply of oxygen an altered metal status may be an early sign of ?

A

Hypoxia

46
Q

When the respiratory rate is greater than 40 per minute in the adult, the time for the lungs to fil is so short that the tidal volume will become in adequate and the patient will become ?

A

Hypoxic

47
Q

on average an elderly person respiratory rate is ? per minute

A

20

48
Q

cool, pale, clammy (moist) skin is an early sign of

A

hypoxia

49
Q

a late sign of hypoxia is

A

cyanosis

50
Q

respiratory rate that is to fast

A

tacyhpnea

51
Q

Chemorecptors constantly monitor the amount of ________and_______in arterial blood.
the body increase respiratory rate in attempt to eliminate___________?

A

carbon dioxide and oxygen

carbon dioxide

52
Q

Asymmetrical movement of the chest wall is AN IDICATION OF WHAT

A

SIGNIFICANT CHEST INJURY

53
Q

the uncomfortable sensation of breathing difficulty is produced when the oxygen demands of the cell are not being met by the respiratory or circulation system is known as

A

dyspnea

54
Q

when must you apply positive pressure ventilation supplemented with oxygen

A

if a patient is apneic (not breathing) or is inadequately breathing

55
Q

the method that pushes air and oxygen into the lungs is known as

A

positive pressure ventilation

56
Q

positive ventilation can be achieved by

A

mouth-to-mask, bag-valve-mask, or flow restricted, oxygen-powered device

57
Q

In patients that are breathing adequately, when is oxygen therapy recommended ?

A

signs of
hypoxia, hypoxemia, poor perfusion, heart failure, respiratory distress, patient complaining of dyspnea and with SpO2 reading lower than 94%

58
Q

how is oxygen therapy usually delivered

A

nasal cannula 2 to 4 Ipm

59
Q

a patient with an SpO2 of <94% should be considered___________and given________

A

hypoxic supplemental oxygen

60
Q

elderly patients commonly have a irregularly irregular heart rhythms that is

A

an irregular or abnormal rhythm that has no regular pattern

61
Q

Bradycardia an ominous sign of hypoxia in

A

infants and children

62
Q

tachycardia is a heart rate of greater than

A

100per min

63
Q

a heart rate of greater than 100 per min is a sign of

A

anxiety, blood loss, shock, abnormal heart rhythms, heart attack, early hypoxia, fever, medical or traumatic conditions

64
Q

patients perfusion can be checked by checking

A

skin color, temperature, and condition

65
Q

pale and mottled skin

A

indicates a decrease in perfusion and the on set of shock

patient is losing blood

66
Q

Cyanotic skin

A

bluish grey skin

may indicate patient has chest injury, blood loss or has pneumonia or pulmonary edema

67
Q

why does the skin of hypoxic patients appear blue

A

hemoglobin in red blood cells changes color when starve of oxygen

68
Q

red skin

A

increase in amount of blood circulating in the blood vessels of the skin

indicator of anaphylactic shock, saogenic shock, poisoning, overdose, alcohol ingestion, inflammation cold exposure and heat stroke

69
Q

yellow skin

A

liver dysfunction

70
Q

treat shock patients with positive pressure ventilation with supplement oxygen at _______ with a _____________mask.

A

15 Ipm non-rebreather

71
Q

what is the mnemonic to remember

A
OPQRST
O-Onset
P-Provocation/Palliation 
Q-Quality
R Radiation/region
S-Severity
T-timing