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Flashcards in Chapter21 Deck (40):
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Fenestrated capillaries

Endothelial cells have numerous fenestrae. Intestinal villi, ciliary of eyes, CNS plexus, glomeruli of kidneys

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Sinusoidal capillaries

Large diameter. Little or basement. Large fenestrae, gaps between endothelial cells. Endocrine glands

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Sinusoids

Large diameter sinusoidal capillaries. Liver, bone marrow. Macrophages

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Venous sinuses

Larger than sinusoidal capillaries. Spleen.

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Capillary path

Arterioles
Metarterioles
Thoroughfare channel
Precapillary sphincters
Venules

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Arteriovenous anastomoses

Allow blood to flow from arterioles to small veins without passing through capillaries

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Glomus

Ateriovenous anastomosis that consist of arterioles with abundant smooth muscle in their walls. Coiled, sheaths.

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Glomus location

Sole of foot, Palm of hand, terminal phalanges, nail beds. Regulate temperature

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Pathologic arteriovenous anastomoses

Result from injury or tumors. Direct blood flow from arteries to veins. Heart failure. Too much venous return

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Tunics of arteries and veins

Tunica intima
Tunica media
Tunica adventitia or externa

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Vasoconstriction and vasodilation in...

Tunica media

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Types of arteries

Elastic arteries
Muscular arteries
Arterioles

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Elastic arteries

Thick tunica intima (elastic properties of wall) higher BP

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Muscular arteries

Medium and small arteries. Constrict, dilate.

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Arterioles

Transport blood from small arteries to capillaries. Constrict, dilate

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Types of veins

Venules
Medium, large
Portal veins

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Venules

Very small veins

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Portal veins

Begin in primary capillary network, end in second capillary network.

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Hepatic portal veins

Gastrointestinal tract and spleen to liver

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Hypothalamohypophysial portal veins

Hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland

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Vasa vasorum

Supply nutrients to arteries and veins themselves

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Arteriosclerosis

Hardening of arteries. Degenerative

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Atherosclerosis

Deposition of material in the walls of arteries

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Laminar flow

Fluid, including blood, tends to flow through long, smooth walled tubes in a streamline fashion. Center is more rapid

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Turbulent flow

Laminar flow is interrupted when fluid passes a restriction.

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Blood pressure

Measure of the force blood exerts against blood vessel walls

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Mercury manometer

Measures blood pressure in millimeters of mercury

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Cannula

Tube that be inserted into a blood vessel and connecting a manometer or an electronic pressure transducer to it

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Auscultatory method

Most often used to check blood pressure by professionals

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Sphygmomanometer

Connected to blood pressure cuff

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Korotkoff sounds

Blood flow vibrations in blood and surrounding tissues heard through stethoscope

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First korotkoff sound

Systolic pressure

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Second korotkoff sound

Diastolic pressure

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Poiseuille's law

When the equation for resistance is combined with the equation for flow

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Viscosity

A measure of a liquids resistance to flow

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Hematocrit

The percentage of the total blood volume composed of red blood cells

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Critical closing pressure

The pressure below which the vessel collapses and blood flow through the vessel stops

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Laplace's law

The force that stretches the vascular wall is proportional to the diameter of the vessel times blood pressure

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Aneurysm

Arterial wall is weakened and bulges. May rupture.

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Compliance

The tendency for blood vessel volume to increase as blood pressure increases