Chapters 1, 2 Flashcards Preview

Phonetics > Chapters 1, 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 1, 2 Deck (53):
1

phonetics

study of the perception and production of speech sounds

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two-way scoring

dichotomous decision making about speech behavior. a clinician must decide if a target behavior is "correct" or "incorrect"; of the three systems this is used most often

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five-way scoring
"correct, deletion, substitution, distortion, addition"

more descriptive than 2 way, clinician needs to know whether sound is right or wrong
- deletion or omission- when sound is deleted altogether
-substitution- replaced by another sound
-distortion- sound not said quite correctly
-addition- sound said correctly but preceded or followed by an intrusive sound

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phonetic transcription

highest level of scoring concerned only with description of behavior. represent what the child says rather than to score or judge it by some arbitrary standard

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broad vs narrow transcription

depending on number and type of symbols used

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speech

a pattern of the movements of the speech organs and a pattern of acoustic vibrations

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speech community

a group of people who live within the same geographical boundaries and use the same language

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dialects

different usage patterns within a language; descriptive over prescriptive (descriptive comments simply describe dialectal variations without evaluative judgements)

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regional dialects

characteristics of people who live in a certain region

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General American English (GAE)

most commonly used in USA

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idiolect

each person's unique form of spoken language determined by regional background, social class, and various individual factors and experiences

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sign language

manual communication used by people who are deaf or hard of hearing; another mode of language expression

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morpheme

smallest unit of language that carries meaning

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lexicon

list of morphemes in a language

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words make up the dictionary of a language...

morphemes make up the lexicon of a language

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morphemics or morphology

study of morphemes

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morphemic transcription

a written record of the morphemic content of an utterance

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phoneme

a basic sound segment that has the linguistic function of distinguishing morphemes

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graphemes

alphabet letters

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minimal contrasts

contrasts between 2 morphemes that differ in only one sound segment- cup/cub and pay/bay

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international phonetic alphabet

ipa- standardized system of notation used for transcribing speech sounds

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ipa

107 symbols for consonants and vowels

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visible speech

invented by alexander melville bell, an organic system in that the symbols were designed to give visual representations of the articulatory positions for individual sounds

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Korean alphabet aka HANGUL

most recently invented and most scientifically designed alphabet in the world. symbols for consonants are graphical representations of the underlying articulation, so that each symbol depicts the way in which a sound is formed

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phonology

the study of sound systems of language, that is, the structure and function of sounds in languages

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articulatory phonetics

concerned with how sounds are formed

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acoustic phonetics

concerned with the acoustic properties of sound

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clinical phonetics

focuses on the sounds that become the professional concern of the slp

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allophone

a phonetic variant of a phoneme; produced differently but sound the same (coo, key)

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free variation allophone

when allophones can be exchanged for one another in a given phonetic context

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complementary distribution: allophone

when they are not normally exchanged for one another in a certain phonetic context

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phonetic symbols

symbols used to represent allophones or phonetic variants of phonemes (are placed within brackets)

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diacritic marks

special marks that modify phonetic symbols

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digraphs

sequences of two or more alphabetic characters that represent a single sound: th, gh, ph, sh,ch

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morphs

individual morpheme like shapes encountered in a language sample

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phone

any particular occurrence of a sound segment of speech

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alphabet

a set of letters or other characters used for the writing of a language

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allographs

different letters or combinations of letters that represent the same phoneme : sh, s, ss, ch, ti, ci,x

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initial, medial and final

used to denote sound locations at the beginning, middle and end of a word

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releasing sound

syllable initial, the sound at the beginning of a syllable is said to release the syllable

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arresting sound

a sound at the end of a syllable is said to arrest the syllable

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prevocalic

notes that a sound occurs before a given vowel

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postvocalic

denotes that a sound occurs after a given vowel

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geminate

from Latin geminus meaning twin- sounds occur together as a pair, or 2 adjacent sounds are the same such as bookkeeper- two ks are but not the two vowels

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syllable

a unit of spoken language that in its most general form is comprised of a syllable nucleus with optional initial and final margins

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onset

initial margin is also referred to as a releasing consonant

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coda

final margin is also referred to as an arresting consonant

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open syllable

one that does not end in a consonant: law, see, throw, spry

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closed syllable

one that ends with a consonant: lot, seep, sprite, throat

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syllabary

a phonetic writing system that uses symbols to represent syllables rather than individual sounds

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diphthongs

combined vowels such as the oy in boy

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language

a socially shared code, a system for representing concepts or thoughts through use of arbitrary symbols

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5 definite characteristics of all languages

SYMBOLS: all languages use symbols
LIMITED SET OF SOUNDS : (english has 42)
VOCABULARY: all languages have lexicons or dictionaries of words and their meanings
RULES FOR LINKING WORDS AND PARTS OF WORDS (morphemes) together and meaning of what is being said
RULES FOR USING LANGUAGE IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT (includes prosody)