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BIO111: Microbiology > Chapters 1 & 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 1 & 10 Deck (107):
0

Microbiology
(definition)

The study of small (usually microscopic) organisms

1

Mycologists study...

microscopic fungi

2

Who is the father of microbiology

Antony Van Leeuwenhoek

3

Antony van Leeuwenhoek

Observed "animalcules" in lake water in 1674
Dutch Drapery Merchant
Made simple magnifying glass

4

Robert Hooke

1665, England
First to describe and name "cells" found in cork tissue
Described "microscopical mushroom" (common bread mold)

5

Scientists responsible for cell theory and year

1800s
Schleiden (Botanist)
Schwann (Human Anatomist)

6

Cell Theory

-All organisms consist of one or more cells
-Cells are the basic organizational unit of all living things
- All living cells arise from other pre-existing living cells (biogenesis)

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Theories on where microorganisms come from

Spontaneous generation
Biogenesis

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Spontaneous Generation

Life arises spontaneously from non-living material

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Biogenesis

All living cells arise from other pre-existing living cells

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Who helped disprove Spontaneous Generation and years

Francesco Redi - 1668
Needham and Spallanzani - 1749, 1776
Louis Pasteur - 1861

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Francesco Redi

Disproved spontaneous generation in 1668 by studying maggots and rotting meat

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Needham and Spallanzani

Priests that studied boiling broths in 1749 and 1776
Needham corked broth and still ended up with bacteria in both broths r/t possible contamination
Spallanzani melted the top on one of the flasks and it grew no bacteria

13

Louis Pasteur

1861
filtered air and swan-necked flasks
bacteria would form in the neck of the flask but not in the broth unless tipped sideways

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Pasteur's Experiments

-No living things arise by spontaneous generation
-microbes are everywhere
- growth of microbes causes dead tissue to decompose and food to spoil - Pasteurization

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Pasteurization came through studying...

wine spoilage

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Three people responsible for theory of heat resistant microorganisms and in what year?

1876
John Tyndall
Ferdinand Cohn
Robert Koch

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John Tyndalls theory against spontaneous generation

heat-resistant microorganisms

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Ferdinand Cohn theory against spontaneous generation

endospores

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Endospores

seed like hard exterior that is able to withstand heat

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Robert Koch's theory against spontaneous generation

anthrax spores

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Difference between negative control and positive control

Negative control - nothing should happen
Positive control - reactions happen as planned

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Science

organized body of knowledge about natural world

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Scientific method

steps used to gain information about natural world
1. observation
2. hypothesis
3. experiment
4. conclusion

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2 major types of bacteria that for endospores

Bacillus and Clostridium

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Progression of Scientific ideas

- Peer review/publication
- further experimentation
- theory
- scientific law

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Germ Theory

Late 1800s
Microbes cause disease and specific microbes cause specific diseases

27

Ignaz Semmelweis

1841
believed that childbirth infections spread by doctors in hospitals

28

Joseph Lister

1865
clean wounds and antiseptic surgery
phenol/carbolic acid

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Robert Koch

late 1800s
Proved germ theory studying Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

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Koch's postulates

1. the suspect agent must be present in every case of the disease
2. The suspect agent must be grown in pure culture from diseased hosts
3. The same disease must be produced when a pure culture of the agent is given to a healthy, experimental host
4. The same agent must be recovered from the experimentally infected host`

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4 importances of microbiology

1.Necessary for human life and other forms of life
2. Economic Applications
3. Scientific research
4. Medical Microbiology

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Why is microbiology necessary for human life and other forms of life

1. Oxygen gas production
2. Nitrogen Fixation - convert N2 gas to a usable form
3. Decomposition - cellulose, dead material and waste *only bacteria can break down cellulose

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Why microbiology is important of Economic Applications

1. Food Production (bacteria and yeast fermentation)
2. Biotechnology (Drug production & health of agriculture)
3. Bioremediation (decomposers speed up decay of pollutants, clean up of oil, DDT spills)

34

Why is microbiology important for scientific research?

Easy to study - grow quickly, inexpensive
Similar to more complex larger animals
"what is true of elephants is true of bacteria"

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Why is microbiology important for Medical Microbiology

1. Over 1/2 the worlds pospulation has died of malaria
2. 20 million dies each year from preventable diseases
3. In US 750 million infection diseases each year - over 200,000 fatal

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What are the top two infectious disease killers in the world

Diarrhea and Pneumonia

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Controlling Infection Diseases

1. Improving sewage disposal - Chadwick
2. Assuring clean public water supply
3. Food preservation and inspection - Pasteurization
4. Improving personal hygiene
5. Developing antiseptic techniques - Lister

38

3 further methods of controlling infection disease

Chemotherapy
Antibiotics
Vaccines

39

Chemotherapy

Use of chemical to treat a disease
-cleaning inanimate objects and human tissue
-medications

40

Antibiotics

antibacterial compounds produced by fungi and bacteria

41

Vaccines

preparation of a pathogen or its products to provide immunity

42

Bacteria are very diverse in...

Phenotype (physical characteristics)
Genotype (genes, RNA, DNA)
Ecological characteristics

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Phenotype

Physical characteristics

44

Morphology

size and shape

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Genotype

Genes, RNA and DNA

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Ecology

relationship with environment and other organisms

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types of Ecology

Free-living
Symbiotic

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Free-living

Organism that is not directly dependent on another organism for survival.
Groupings based on energy and source of organic molecules (autotrophs and heterotrophs)

49

Autotrophs

"self feeding"
free-living
source of carbon is CO2
Source of cellular energy = inorganic molecules for chemoautotrophs or photons for photoautrophs

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Examples of Photoautotrophs

Cyanobacteria - use photosynthesis
Purple Bacteria - anaerobic, use H2S and produce S2

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Why are purple bacteria purple

to gather light for photosynthesis

52

Overall equation for photosynthesis

CO2 + H20 + light = C6H12O6 + O2

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Examples of Chemoautotrophs

Methanogens (anaerobic) - H2 gas + CO2 -> CH4 (methane) + H20
Sulfer-oxidizing - H2S +O2 -> H2SO4

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Two types of autotrophs

Chemoautotrophs and Photoautotrophs

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Two types of free-living microorganisms

Autotrophs (self-feeding)
Heterotrophs (other feeding)

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Heterotrophs

"Other feeding"
Ex. humans and animals, some bacteria
Source of carbon: organic molecules from other organisms
Source of cellular energy: organic molecules from other organisms
Consume or absorb nutrients

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subset of Heterotrophs that only feed on dead organisms

Decomposers

58

Decomposers

organisms that use simple organic molecules from dead organisms
cellular energy and source of carbon both come from dead organisms

59

Symbiotic microorganisms

organisms that live on or in another organism and depend on that organism for survival.
Symbiont is the smaller organism and the larger is the host

60

Types of symbiosis

Mutualism
Commensalism
Parasitism

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Mutualism

both the symbiont and the host benefit
Example:
Rhizobia - live in nodules in pant roots, nitrogen fixation
Lactobacillus spp. - produces and acidic environment in the vagina that inhibits bacterial growth.

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Commensalism

The symbiont benefits but the host is neither harmed nor helped
Example: skin microbiota

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Parasitism

The symbiont benefits, but the host is harmed

64

Two types of parasites

Exotic
Opportunistic (endemic)

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Exotic parasites

pathogen not typically found in the human body, can invade and cause harm
ex. cold and flu viruses

66

Opportunistic (endemic) parasites

normal microbiota can inflict harm when the host immunity is weakened
ex. strep pneumonia

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Taxonomy

Study of organisms in order to arrange them into groups (taxa)

68

3 parts of taxonomy

Classification
Identification
Nomenclature

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Classification

the orderly arrangement of organisms into groups that have similar characteristics

70

Nomenclature

naming

71

Who created the scientific naming of organisms

Carolus Linnaeus in 1753
called it binomial nomenclature

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Binomial nomenclature

Two latin words
Genus name is capitalized, species name is not
Italicized or underlined
Names are descriptive and/or honorary

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Trick to remember Classification system order

Do Keep Piling Chocolate On For Goodness Sake

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Classification order

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

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Bacterias order normally ends in

-ales

76

Bacteria's family often ends in

-aceae

77

How many kingdoms are there?

5
Monera/Prokarya
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia

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How are organisms classified into kingdoms?

1.number of cells
2. cell type
3. nutrition and energy requirements
4. cell wall composition

79

Kingdom Monera/Prokarya

Unicellular
Prokaryotic
Chemoautotroph, photoautotroph, heterotroph (decomposers and all types symbiosis)
True bacteria have peptidoglycan in the cell wall

80

True bacteria have what in the cell wall

peptidoglycan

81

Examples of Kingdom Monera/Prokarya

Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, Archaeabacteria

82

Kingdom Protista

Mostly unicellular
Eukaryotic
Photoautotroph and/or heterotroph
Algae, water molds - cell walls with cellulose in some
protozoa - no cell wall

83

Examples of Kingdom Protista

Algae (Euglena, diatoms)
Protozoa (Amoeba, Paramecium)
Water molds

84

Kingdom Fungi

Mostly multicellular
Eukaryotic
Heterotrophs by absorption (mostly decomposers, also symbiotic, including parasites)
Cell walls of chitin

85

Examples of Kingdom Fungi

Yeast
Mold
Mushrooms

86

Kingdom Plantae

Multicellular
Eukaryotic
Photoautotrophs
Cell walls of cellulose

87

Examples of Kingdom Plantae

Mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants
NO MICROORGANISMS in plant kingdom

88

Kingdom Animalia

Multicellular
Eukaryotic
Heterotrophs by consumption
NO CELL WALLS

89

Examples of Kingdom Animalia

Coral, sponges, insects, worms, reptiles, birds, mammals
parasitic helminth worms are the ONLY microorganisms in the animal kingdom.

90

Phylogeny

using evolutionary relationships to classify organisms
- difficulties with microorganisms because of strains, mutations, asexual reproduction
- molecular techniques (ex. DNA sequencing) helpful in constructing phylogenetic trees

91

Phylogenetic Tree 3 main groups

Bacteria
Archaea
Eucarya

92

Three Domains

Bacteria
Archaea
Eucarya (kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia)

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Who decided that prokaryotes should be split into two domains?

Carl Woese - University of Illinois in the later 1970s

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3 movements of Protistas

Flagella
Cilia
Psudopodia

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Domain Bacteria

- same characteristics as Bacteria kingdom (prokaryotes with peptidoglycan in cell walls)
- Most have specific shapes
- Reproduce asexually with BINARY FISSION
- Many move using flagella

96

Domain Archaea

- Similar to Bacteria Domain
- Cell walls vary greatly and do not have peptidoglycan
- can survive in extreme conditions
- rRNA different from bacteria and eucarya
-show differences in cell membrane, ribosomes, DNA(histones) and tRNA
- not known to cause any human diseases

97

Domain Eucarya

Eukaryotes
Kingdoms protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
microbial members include fungi, protists, larvae stages of helminths

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Infectious agents

Agent capable of causing an infection
Capable of self-replication
Free-living infection agents - require host for nutrition but not reproduction

99

Examples of infectious agents

Bacteria, fungi, protists, helminths

100

Acellular infectious agents

virus, viroid, prion
Acellular: not classified with domain or kingdom systems
Non-living
Can infect all forms of life

101

Viruses

Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)
Protective protein layer (capsid)
1/10 to 1/1000 size of bacteria
nonmotile

102

Study of viruses

Virology

103

Viroids

small piece of RNA without protein coat
much smaller than viruses
cause plant diseases
unknown if infect animals

104

Prions

Small piece of protein only, no nucleic acid
- Abnormal shape
- "self-replicating"
- Affect brain and nerve tissue, fatal and untreatable
Ex. "mad cow disease"bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

105

Size of most bacteria

1 - 10 micrometers

106

size of most viruses

20 - 100 nanometers
0.20 -0.1 micro meters