Flashcards in Chapters 1 & 2 Deck (59):
What are the 5 steps of the Scientific Method?
5. conclusion (Is the hypothesis supported or not?)
Can you prove a hypothesis?
What is the hierarchy of acceptance for expected experimental results?
Bacterial cells divide in a process called ______.
Is fission a clonal process?
Which organisms participate in the process of mitosis?
all higher organisms
Is mitosis a clonal process?
What is the purpose of the process of mitosis?
growth, wound repair, cell replacement
Is meiosis a clonal process?
Which organisms participate in the process of meiosis?
all higher organisms
Which organisms participate in the process of fission?
What main cell feature do viruses lack?
a cell membrane
What is the translation of "prokaryote?"
What is special about prokaryotes?
they lack a nucleus
Are bacteria prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
How long ago was:
the earth formed?
the primitive cell formed?
the advanced cell formed?
the earth: 4.5 bya
the primitive cell: 3.5 bya
the advanced cell: 1.5 bya
What is the translation of "eukaryote?"
What is special about eukaryotes?
they have a nucleus
What are heterotrophs?
organisms that derive their nutritional requirements from complex organic substances (get food from environment)
What is the translation of "heterotroph?"
What are autotrophs?
organisms that convert sunlight energy into the chemical energy in sugar (make own food), photosynthesis
What is the translation of "autotroph?"
What is taxonomy?
the study of classification
What is the translation of "taxonomy?"
taxon=group, onomy=study of
What are organisms grouped in terms of within taxonomy?
relatedness to other organisms
What was Socrates' classification system?
What was the classification system after the inventions of the microscope and world travel?
What was the classification system after the invention of the electron microscope?
proposed by Whittaker, 5 kingdoms:
What organisms exist in the kingdom "monera?"
prokaryotes- single-celled organisms that have neither distinct nuclei with membranes nor other specialized organelles
What organisms exist in the kingdom "protista?"
1) protozoa- motile protists
2) algae- single cellular, contain chlorophyll
What are archaebacteria?
primitive bacteria microorganisms that have one cell and live in environments that are severe
What are eubacteria?
bacteria of a large group typically having simple cells with rigid cell walls and often flagella for movement. The group comprises the “true” bacteria and cyanobacteria, as distinct from archaebacteria
What was the classification system after the invention of DNA technology?
proposed by Woese, 3 domains:
1) Archaea (prokaryotes- extreme environments)
2) Eubacteria (prokaryotes- non-extreme environments)
3) Eukarya (eukaryotes)
What is the current classification system?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum(animals)/Division(plants), Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
How do scientific names work?
generic name (genus), then specific epithet (species)
1) genus capitalized, species lower case
2) whole binomial is italicized/underlined
3) may abbrev. genus but never species
4) species singular: sp., species plural: spp.
ex. Vitis spp.
What are the four general cell types?
1. heterotrophic monera (bacteria)
2. autotrophic monera (bacteria)
3. heterotrophic eukaryote
4. autotrophic eukaryote
What is the function of the cell wall?
protection and strength
What protrudes through the cell wall?
What is the cell wall made out of?
a network of fibers
Does the cell wall regulate what leaves and enters the cell?
What is the cell membrane made out of?
lipids and proteins
What are the functions of the cell membrane?
1) to control what enters and leaves the cell
2) site of specific chemical reactions (enzyme-catalyzed)
What is metabolism defined as?
many chemical reactions
What is an enzyme?
a protein that controls chemical reactions, acts as a catalyst, making chemical reactions more likely to happen
What does DNA stand for?
What is the function of DNA?
heredity and cell control
What is a plasmid?
a small, circular piece of DNA
1) may contain a gene or 2
2) freely enter/leave and integrate into larger DNA molecules
What is the function of a plasmid?
to transmit information
What is a flagellum?
a motor that uses ATP, essentially a tail
How do flagella move a cell?
run and tumble motion, random finding of food (unlike eukaryotic cell)
What are ribosomes?
minute particles consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells
What is the function of ribosomes?
They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins
How large is a ribosome?
about 70s (suedberg units)
What is the cytoplasm made out of?
What is turgor pressure?
pressure that provides shape and prevents compression (cytoplasm)
What are the functions of the cytoplasm?
1) turgor pressure
2) universal solvent
3) mixing (cytoplasmic streaming & cyclosis, encourages/speeds up chemical reactions)
What is a cytoskeleton?
a filament in a cell, it's still up in the air if this exists in prokaryote cells
What does a cytoskeleton do?
provides cell shape, moves stuff around, proteins