Chapters 1 & 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 1 & 2 Deck (59):
1

What are the 5 steps of the Scientific Method?

1. observation/question
2. hypothesis
3. experiment
4. data
5. conclusion (Is the hypothesis supported or not?)

2

Can you prove a hypothesis?

no

3

What is the hierarchy of acceptance for expected experimental results?

1. hypothesis
2. theory
3. law
4. dogma

4

Bacterial cells divide in a process called ______.

fission

5

Is fission a clonal process?

yes

6

Which organisms participate in the process of mitosis?

all higher organisms

7

Is mitosis a clonal process?

yes

8

What is the purpose of the process of mitosis?

growth, wound repair, cell replacement

9

Is meiosis a clonal process?

no

10

Which organisms participate in the process of meiosis?

all higher organisms

11

Which organisms participate in the process of fission?

bacteria

12

What main cell feature do viruses lack?

a cell membrane

13

What is the translation of "prokaryote?"

pro=early, karyos=nucleus

14

What is special about prokaryotes?

they lack a nucleus

15

Are bacteria prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

prokaryotes

16

How long ago was:
the earth formed?
the primitive cell formed?
the advanced cell formed?

the earth: 4.5 bya
the primitive cell: 3.5 bya
the advanced cell: 1.5 bya

17

What is the translation of "eukaryote?"

eu=true, karyos=nucleus

18

What is special about eukaryotes?

they have a nucleus

19

What are heterotrophs?

organisms that derive their nutritional requirements from complex organic substances (get food from environment)

20

What is the translation of "heterotroph?"

hetero=other, troph=feeder

21

What are autotrophs?

organisms that convert sunlight energy into the chemical energy in sugar (make own food), photosynthesis

22

What is the translation of "autotroph?"

auto=self, troph=feeder

23

What is taxonomy?

the study of classification

24

What is the translation of "taxonomy?"

taxon=group, onomy=study of

25

What are organisms grouped in terms of within taxonomy?

relatedness to other organisms

26

What was Socrates' classification system?

450-400 b.c.
2 kingdoms:
1) plants
2) animals

27

What was the classification system after the inventions of the microscope and world travel?

3 kingdoms:
1) animals
2) plants
3) protists

28

What was the classification system after the invention of the electron microscope?

proposed by Whittaker, 5 kingdoms:
1) monera
2) protista
3) fungi
4) plantae
5) animalia

29

What organisms exist in the kingdom "monera?"

prokaryotes- single-celled organisms that have neither distinct nuclei with membranes nor other specialized organelles

30

What organisms exist in the kingdom "protista?"

1) protozoa- motile protists
2) algae- single cellular, contain chlorophyll

31

What are archaebacteria?

primitive bacteria microorganisms that have one cell and live in environments that are severe

32

What are eubacteria?

bacteria of a large group typically having simple cells with rigid cell walls and often flagella for movement. The group comprises the “true” bacteria and cyanobacteria, as distinct from archaebacteria

33

What was the classification system after the invention of DNA technology?

proposed by Woese, 3 domains:
1) Archaea (prokaryotes- extreme environments)
2) Eubacteria (prokaryotes- non-extreme environments)
3) Eukarya (eukaryotes)

34

What is the current classification system?

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum(animals)/Division(plants), Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

35

How do scientific names work?

binomial:
generic name (genus), then specific epithet (species)
rules:
1) genus capitalized, species lower case
2) whole binomial is italicized/underlined
3) may abbrev. genus but never species
4) species singular: sp., species plural: spp.
ex. Vitis spp.

36

What are the four general cell types?

1. heterotrophic monera (bacteria)
2. autotrophic monera (bacteria)
3. heterotrophic eukaryote
4. autotrophic eukaryote

37

What is the function of the cell wall?

protection and strength

38

What protrudes through the cell wall?

the flagellum

39

What is the cell wall made out of?

a network of fibers

40

Does the cell wall regulate what leaves and enters the cell?

no

41

What is the cell membrane made out of?

lipids and proteins

42

What are the functions of the cell membrane?

1) to control what enters and leaves the cell
2) site of specific chemical reactions (enzyme-catalyzed)

43

What is metabolism defined as?

many chemical reactions

44

What is an enzyme?

a protein that controls chemical reactions, acts as a catalyst, making chemical reactions more likely to happen

45

What does DNA stand for?

deoxyribonucleic acid

46

What is the function of DNA?

heredity and cell control

47

What is a plasmid?

a small, circular piece of DNA
1) may contain a gene or 2
2) freely enter/leave and integrate into larger DNA molecules

48

What is the function of a plasmid?

to transmit information

49

What is a flagellum?

a motor that uses ATP, essentially a tail

50

How do flagella move a cell?

run and tumble motion, random finding of food (unlike eukaryotic cell)

51

What are ribosomes?

minute particles consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells

52

What is the function of ribosomes?

They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins

53

How large is a ribosome?

about 70s (suedberg units)

54

What is the cytoplasm made out of?

mostly water

55

What is turgor pressure?

pressure that provides shape and prevents compression (cytoplasm)

56

What are the functions of the cytoplasm?

1) turgor pressure
2) universal solvent
3) mixing (cytoplasmic streaming & cyclosis, encourages/speeds up chemical reactions)

57

What is a cytoskeleton?

a filament in a cell, it's still up in the air if this exists in prokaryote cells

58

What does a cytoskeleton do?

provides cell shape, moves stuff around, proteins

59

What is an organelle?

sub-cellular compartment, membrane-bound, concentrates and isolates related chemical reactions