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Flashcards in Chapters 1 & 2 Deck (180):
1

What is the core theme of biology?

Evolution

The process of change that has transformed life on Earth

2

7 Characteristics of Life

1. Order (organization)
2. Evolutionary adaptation
3. Response to environment
4. Reproduction
5. Growth and development
6. Energy processing
7. Regulation

3

10 Levels of Biological Hierarchy (Biggest level to smallest level)

1. Biosphere
2. Ecosystem
3. Community
4. Population
5. Organism
6. Organs and Organ System
7. Tissue
8. Cell
9. Organelles
10. Molecule

4

Biosphere

all environments (everything) on Earth

5

Ecosystem

all living and nonliving things in a particular area

6

Community

all organisms (living things) in an ecosystem

7

Population

all individuals of a species in a particular area

8

Organism

an individual living thing (one single organism)

9

Organs and Organ Systems

specialized body parts made up of tissues. Ex: heart, stomach

10

Tissue

a group of similar cells

11

Cell

life's fundamental unit of structure and function. (cells are alive)

12

Organelles

a structural component of a cell (building blocks of a cell)

13

Molecule

a chemical structure consisting of atoms

14

Emergent Properties

new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.

Emergent properties characterize nonbiological entities as well.
Ex: Bike


Emergent Properties- put them/things together

15

Reductionism

is the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study.
Ex: the molecular structure of DNA v. heredity

An understanding of biology balances reductionism with the study of emergent properties.

Reductionism- breaks things apart

16

Life requires energy transfer and transformation

Living organisms transform energy from one form to another

food (chemical energy) >> motion (kinetic energy)

17

Two Rules of Ecosystem Dynamics (how they work)
(The two major processes that the dynamics of an ecosystem include)

1. Chemical nutrients recycle (chemicals cycle)
2. Energy flows- usually enters as sunlight exits as heat

18

Structure and Function of living organisms

are closely related.
By looking at the structure we can figure out the function.

19

The fundamental unit of life

Cell

20

The lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life (Order, evolutionary adaptation, response to the environment, reproduction, growth and development, energy processing, regulation)

The Cell

21

All Cells

-are enclosed by a membrane (outside part)
-use DNA as their genetic material (inside part)

22

Two main forms of cells are

Eukaryotic Cell and Prokaryotic Cell

23

Eukaryotic Cell

has membrane-enclosed organelles, the largest of which is usually the nucleus

(have internal membrane)

24

Prokaryotic Cell

is simpler and usually smaller, and does not contain a nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles

(doesn't have internal membrane. normally much smaller)
(bacteria)

25

the ability of cells to divide is

the basis of all reproduction, growth, and repair of multicellular organisms

26

DNA is

a simple molecule.
Each DNA molecule is made up of two long chains arranged in a double helix

27

A, G, C, and T

each link of a chain is one of four kinds of chemical building blocks called nucleotides and nicknamed A, G, C, and T.

Its all about the order of things and order of the nucleotides

28

A gene codes for

protein

29

DNA >> RNA>> Protein

DNA is transcribed into RNA then translated into a protein

30

Negative Feedback

means that as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it slows and less of the product is produced.

ATP generation

31

Positive Feedback

means that as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it speeds up and more of the product is produced

Blood clotting

32

Taxonomy

is the branch of biology that names and classifies species into groups of increasing breadth

Domains followed by kingdoms are the broadest units of classification

33

Organisms are divided into three domains
(the three domains of life)

Domain Bacteria (prokaryotic-unicellular)
Domain Archaea (prokaryotic-unicellular)
Domain Eukarya (eukaryotic)

34

Domain Bacteria

Prokaryotic-unicellular.
has no nucleus.
it is anything normal that lives on skin or in lungs or in normal areas or normal environments

35

Domain Archaea

Prokaryotic-unicellular.
has no nucleus.
it is anything weird that lives in like volcanoes or really cold environments or just weird environments

36

Domain Eukarya

Eukaryotic.
anything that has a nucleus.

It has four kingdoms that can be distinguished by how they get their food:
1. Kingdom Plantae
2. Kingdom Fungi
3. Kingdom Animalia
4. Protists.

37

Kingdom Plantae

photosynthetic
multicellular

38

Kingdom Fungi

absorb nutrients
multicellular

39

Kingdom Animalia

ingest their food
multicellular

40

Protists

unicellular
many kingdoms

41

DNA is the

universal genetic language common to all organisms.
Unity is evident in many features of cell structure

42

natural selection

results in the adaptation of organisms to their environment

43

Evolution occurs at

the population level

44

Inquiry

is the search for information and explanation

45

The scientific process includes

making observations, forming logical hypotheses, and testing them

46

Types of Data

Qualitative
Quantitative

47

Qualitative

descriptions rather than measurements.

Descriptive

48

Quantitative

recorded measurements, which are sometimes organized into tables and graphs (NUMBERS).

Numerical

49

Hypothesis

is a tentative answer to a well framed question (if ... then)

They are NOT best guesses.
They are usually narrow in scope.

A scientific hypothesis leads to predictions that can be tested by observation or experimentation

50

Failure to falsify a hypothesis

does not prove that hypothesis.

Nothing "proves" a hypothesis beyond a shadow of a doubt

51

Inductive Reasoning

draws conclusions through the logical process of induction.

Repeat specific observations can lead to important generalizations.
Specific --> General

Observations and inductive reasoning can lead us to ask questions and propose hypothetical explanations called hypothesis

52

Deductive Reasoning

uses general premises to make specific predictions.
General --> Specific

Deductive Reasoning-- If . . . Then . . .

53

A hypothesis must be

testable and falsifiable.

Supernatural and religious explanations are outside the bounds of science.

54

A theory is

-broader in scope than a hypothesis.
-general, and can lead to a new testable hypotheses.
-supported by a large body of evidence in comparison to a hypothesis

55

A controlled experiment

compares an experimental group with a control group.

A controlled experiment means that control groups are used to cancel the effects of unwanted variables.

56

Dependent Variables

what is the outcome. what depends on the entire experiment before something happens. the end.

Goes on the Y axis

57

Independent Variables

what "I" ,the researcher, does. the thing that is manipulated. what changes. the beginning.

Goes on the X axis.

58

Science VS. Technology

the goal of science is to understand natural phenomena.

The goal of technology is to apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose.

59

Organisms are composed of

matter.

60

Matter

anything that takes up space and has mass.
Matter is made up of elements.

61

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

make up about 96% of living matter.

(CHON)

62

Most of the remaining 4% of living matter consists of

calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur

63

Trace elements

are those required by an organism in minute quantities.
Iodine, goiter.

minute- teeny tiny

64

An Element

is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions.

C, N, Na

65

A Compound

is a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio

NaCl, H2O

A compound has characteristics different from those of its elements

66

An element consists of

unique atoms

67

An Atom

is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element

68

Atoms are composed of

subatomic particles

69

Relevant subatomic particles inclue

- Neutrons (no electrical charge) (found in nucleus)
-Protons (positive charge)
-Electrons (negative charge)

70

Protons

+ charge.
determine element.

71

Neutrons

no charge.
determine isotope.

72

Electrons

- charge.
form negative cloud around the nucleus and determine chemical behavior

73

neutrons and protons form the

atomic nucleus.

74

Neutron mass and proton mass are almost identical and measured in

Daltons.

Proton= about 1 dalton (Weight)

75

Electrons do not

follow circular orbits around the nucleus.
instead they are constantly moving around the nucleus.

76

Atoms of various elements differ in

number of subatomic particles

77

An element's atomic number is the

number of protons in its nucleus.

Atomic Number= # of protons

78

An element's atomic mass is the

sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus.

Atomic Mass= P + N

79

Atomic mass

the atom's total mass, can be approximated by the mass number

Atomic Mass= P + N + E

80

The mass number is

written as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol

Mass Number= # of Protons + # of Neutrons

81

The atomic number is

written as a subscript to the left of an element's symbol

Atomic Number= # of Protons

82

All atoms of an element have the same number of protons but may differ

in number of neutrons

83

Isotopes

are two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons

C12, C13, C14

84

Radioactive isotopes

decay spontaneously giving off particles and energy

85

Energy is

the capacity to cause change

86

Potential energy is

the energy that matter has because of its location or structure

87

The electrons of an atom differ in their amounts of

potential energy

88

An electron's state of potential energy is called its

energy level or electron shell

89

First shell

can hold up to 2 electrons

90

Second shell

can hold up to 8 electrons

91

Third shell

can hold up to 8 electrons

92

The chemical behavior of an atom is determined by

the distribution of electrons in electron shells.
the valence electrons (in the outer shell)

93

Mostly always the number of protons will be the same as the

number of electrons, unless stated otherwise

94

Valence electrons

are electrons in the outermost shell, or valence shell

95

The Valence of an element

is how many electrons it still wants. the number of empty spots that need to be filled with electrons to fill the shell.

96

Elements with a full valence shell are chemically

inert

97

Valence tells you how many

bonds it'll make and how many electrons are missing in the outer shell

98

Oxygen

6 valence electrons
valence of 2

99

Hydrogen

1 valence electron
Valence of 1

100

Carbon

4 valence electrons
valence of 4

101

Nitrogen

5 valence electrons
valence of 3

102

Covalent Bonds

strongest bonds you can make that happen by sharing the electrons.

A covalent bond is the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms.

Covalent bond= Strong. Share.

In a covalent bond, the shared electrons count as a part of each atom's valence shell.

103

A Molecule consists of

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.

104

A single covalent bond, or single bond, is the

sharing of one pair of valence electrons

105

A double covalent bond, or double bond, is the

sharing of two pairs of valence electrons

106

Covalent bonds can form between

atoms of the same element or atoms of different elements

107

H20

a molecule and compound

108

H2

a molecule

109

Electronegativity

is an atom's attraction for the electrons in a covalent bond

110

The more electronegative an atom,

the more strongly it pulls shared electrons toward itself

111

Two types of covalent bonds

Non-polar covalent bond and Polar Covalent Bond

112

Non-Polar Covalent Bonds

share electrons equally

113

Polar Covalent Bonds

share electrons UNequally.
One atom is more electronegative and the atoms do not share the electron equally.

114

Unequal sharing of electrons causes a

partial positive or negative charge for each atom or molecule

115

Ionic Bonds

weaker, and transfer electrons.

Atoms sometimes strip electrons from their bonding partners.
An example is the transfer of an electron from sodium to chlorine. NaCl
After the transfer of an electron, both atoms have charges.

116

A charged atom (or molecule) is called an

ion

117

NaCl

is an ionic bond.

118

A cation

is a positively charged ion

119

A anion

is a negatively charged ion

120

An ionic bond is an attraction between an

anion and a cation

121

Sodium loses an electron so it is a

cation
Na+

122

Chloride gains an electron so it is an

anion
Cl-

123

Most of the strongest bonds in organisms are

covalent bonds that form a cell's molecules

124

Weak chemical bonds are

ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds

125

Weak chemical bonds reinforce

shapes of large molecules and help molecules adhere to each other

126

Hydrogen Bonds

weak, and form between molecules.

A hydrogen bond forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom.

In living cells, the electronegative partners are usually oxygen or nitrogen atoms

127

Van Der Waals Interactions

Weak and asymmetrical electrons.

Van Der Waals Interactions are attractions between molecules that are close together as a result of these chargers.
(Asymmetrical electron distribution).

Collectively, such interactions can be strong, as between molecules of gecko's toe hairs and a wall surface.

If electrons are distributed asymmetrically in molecules or atoms, they can result in "hot spots" of positive or negative charge.

128

All organisms on your campus make up

a community

129

which of the following is a correct sequence of levels in life’s hierarchy, proceeding downward from an individual matter?

Nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell

130

Systems biology is mainly an attempt to

Understand the behavior of entire biological systems

131

Which of the following are observations or interferences on which Darwin’s theory of natural selection is based?

-There is heritable variation among individuals
-Because of overproduction of offspring, there is competition for limited resources
-Individuals whose inherited characteristics best fit them to the environment will generally produce more offspring
-A population can become adapted to its environment over time

132

Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because

Protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacteria cells lack

133

Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all organisms?

The structure and function of DNA

134

A controlled experiment is one that

Tests experimental and control groups in parallel

135

Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science?

Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power

136

Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?

The fish swam in a zigzag motion

137

Which of the following best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?

If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results

138

in the term trace element, the adjective trace means that

the element is required in very small amounts

139

compared with 31P, the radioactive isotope 32P has

one more neutron

140

the reactivity of an atom arises from

the existence of unpaired electrons in the valence shell

141

which statement is true of all atoms that are anions?

The atom has more electrons than protons

142

Which of the following statements correctly describes any chemical reaction that has reached equilibrium?

The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal

143

We can represent atoms by listing the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons—for example, 2p+, 2n0, 2e- for helium. Which of the following represents 18O isotope of oxygen?

8p+, 10n0, 8e-

144

the atomic number of sulfur is 16. Sulfur combines with hydrogen by covalent bonding to form a compound, hydrogen sulfide. Based on the number of valence electrons in a sulfur atom, predict the molecular formula of the compound.

H2S

145

What coefficients must be placed in the following blanks so that all atoms are accounted for in the products?
C6H12O6 →______ C2H6O + ______ CO2

2; 2

146

A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical procedures is a(n) _____.

element

147

Which of the following is a trace element required by most living organisms?

magnesium

148

Which of the following subatomic particles always has a positive charge?

proton

149

Changing the number of _____ would change an atom into an atom of a different element.

protons in an atom

150

The atoms of different phosphorus isotopes _____.

have different numbers of neutrons

151

The type of bonding and the numbers of covalent bonds an atom can form with other atoms is determined by _____.

the number of unpaired electrons in the valence shell

152

A carbon atom and a hydrogen atom form what type of bond in a molecule?

nonpolar covalent bond

153

An ionic bond is formed when _____.

one atom transfers an electron to another atom

154

Hydrogen bonding is most often seen _____.

when hydrogen is covalently bonded to an electronegative atom

155

Chemical equilibrium is reached when _____.

The forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate so that the concentrations of reactants and products remain the same

156

An organ, such as the liver, is composed of _____.

tissues

157

Which of these is an organ system?

digestive

158

What are the two main types of cells?

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

159

Which of the following is true?

Bacteria can mutate within the human body

160

The innermost electron shell of an atom can hold up to _____ electrons.

2

161

Which of these relationships is true of an uncharged atom?

The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons

162

What determines the types of chemical reactions that an atom participates in?

the number of electrons in the outermost electron shell

163

`An atom is least likely to participate in a reaction when

its outermost shell is stable.

164

What is the atomic number of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?

6

165

Which of these refers to atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses?

these atoms are isotopes

166

Atoms with the same atomic number and different atomic masses are referred to as

isotopes.

167

Fluorine's atomic number is 9 and its atomic mass is 19. How many neutrons does fluorine have?

10

168

Atomic mass is equal to

the number of protons plus the number of neutrons (19-9 = 10).

169

the atomic number is equal to

the number of protons.

170

The proton, neutron, and electron are

the three main subatomic particles that make up all the elements.

171

Mass of ~1 amu=

neutron and proton

172

Mass of ~1/2000 amu=

electron

173

A covalent bond is one in which

electron pairs are shared

174

A(n) _____ refers to two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.

molecule

175

A molecule is defined as

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

176

A hydrogen atom with a net positive charge is attracted to

an oxygen atom with a net negative charge.

177

What name is given to the bond between water molecules?

hydrogen

178

Atoms with the same number of protons but with different electrical charges _____.

are different ions

179

An ionic bond involves

an attraction between ions of opposite charge

180

The tendency of an atom to pull electrons toward itself is referred to as its _____.

Electronegativity