Flashcards in Chapters 12-13 Deck (100):
1) What is the general overall function of the nervous system?
works with the endocrine system to maintain homeostasis, communicates with the body via action potentials, is responsible for thoughts and behaviors, and initiates voluntary movements
2) What makes up the nervous system?
NOT: the vertebral column
3) What are some of the major functions of the nervous system?
Sensory: detect changes in the environment and relays information to the brain and the spinal cord
4) What makes up the central nervous system?
excludes the cranial and spinal nerves, ganglia, and sensory receptors, is the source of thoughts and emotions.
5) What makes up the peripheral nervous system
may be divided into somatic, autonomic, and enteric* nervous system
6) What does the somatic nervous system do?
provides motor signals and conscious control to skeletal muscles
7) What are neurons?
are electrically excitable cells, vary greatly in size, have a prokaryon enriched with the organelles for protein synthesis
8) Which are more numerous for a neuron, dendrites or axons?
9) What makes up a synapse?
a synapse is the site of where two neurons or a neuron: and an effector meet
10) What kind of neuron make up most of the brain?
11) What are neuroglia?
compromise about one half of the tissue in the CNS, retain mitotic potential but do not conduct nerve impulses, support and protect neurons.
12) What are astrocytes, what do they do?
they form the blood-brain barrier
13) Which neuroglia cells produce myelin?
oligodendrocytes, schwann cells
14) What is multiple sclerosis (MS)?
disease that results in the destruction of the myelin sheath
15) What makes up gray matter?
consists of neuron cell bodies, neuroglia, and unmyelinated nerve fibers
16) What is true about the electrical potential across a neuron’s plasma membrane?
neurons exhibit differences in electrical voltage across their plasma membrane
17) When ions move across the plasma membrane, what happens?
flow of electrical current, disturb potential
18) What is true about ion channels?
NOT: leakage channels make it more permeable
19) What contributes to the maintenance of a resting membrane potential?
lower plasma membrane permeability to sodium than potassium
20) What are graded potentials?
arise when ion movement causes a minor change in the resting membrane potential
21) What are action potentials
allow an impulse to travel over long or short distances
22) Place the events involved in generating an action potential in the order in which they occur.
23) Some governments execute convicts using lethal injections that contain high concentrations of KCl. At the cellular level, how does the high concentration of KCl kill the convict?
excess potassium disrupts gradient, no neuron repolarization
24) What is the difference between continuous conduction and salutatory conduction?
continuous conduction is slower than salutary conduction
25) Axons classified as A fibers have what/are what?
they are myelinated, have large diameters, conduct impulses more rapidly
26) An instructor helps a student clean up the pieces of a broken beaker. As they search for glass fragmentsunder the lab bench, the instructor inhales sharply and says, “I just found a piece of glass with my knee.” How
could the instructor determine that her knee was in contact with broken glass rather than with the floor?
the broken glass generated more frequent action potentials than the pressure of the floor, more action potentials in more neurons were activated by the pressure of the glass
27) Do neuron action potentials last longer than muscle fiber action potentials?
NOT neuron action potentials last longer than muscle fiber action potentials
28) What are electrical synapses?
occur when there is direct contact between electrically excitable cells
29) What happens at a chemical synapse?
the pre-synaptic neuron converts an electrical signal into a chemical signal
30) Place the events at a chemical synapse in the order in which they occur.
1. action potential arrives at pre-synpatic neurons end bulbs;
2. calcium channels bind to vesicles
3. vesicles fuse with presynaptic neurons membrane, neurotransmitter exocytosed;
4. diffuses across synaptic cleft, neurotransmitter binds to receptors, ***
31) Can the transfer of information at a synapse be bi-directional?
NOT: information transfer at a chemical synaose is bidirectional
32) Two neurotransmitters, epinephrine (E) and serotonin (5-HT), are known to be important in regulation of
mood. Inadequate stimulation of postsynaptic neurons by these neurotransmitters results in depression. Which of
the medications are most likely to increase availability of one of these neurotransmitters and be helpful in treating
ALL ARE CORRECT
33) What is summation ?
the integration of input into a neuron
34) A postsynaptic neuron receives a greater number and frequency of excitatory signals than inhibitory
signals, but not enough excitatory signals to reach threshold level. What will develop in this neuron?
35) What are the small molecule neurotransmitters?
36) What does acetylcholine do?
is released from some CNS neurons and most PNS neurons,
is excitatory at skeletal muscle motor end pates,
is inhibitory where the vagus nerve synapses with cardiac fibers
is removed from synapses by the enzyme acetylcholenesterase
37) Which amino acids function as neurotransmitters?
38) What is true about aspartate?
NOT: aspartate is released by most exitatory neurons in the CNS
39) What are the biogenic amines?
40) What is norepinephrine?
an epinephrine are also made by the adrenal glands and can be considered hormones
41) An individual is born with a rare condition in which the receptors that remove catecholamines from a
synapse have very low activity. How might this condition be reflected in a person?
the person might have elevated dopamine levels that could cause a form of mental illness the person might have sleep disturbances
42) How is NO different from most neurotransmitters?
it is not stored in vesicles but is made on demand
43) What is true of neuropeptides?
they consist of chains of amino acids, some serve as hormones outside of the neuron system
44) What are diverging neural circuits?
amplify sensory signals, allow a single pre-synaptic neuron to influence many post-synpaptic neurons
45) Which neural circuit enables a single presynaptic stimulation to cause a postsynaptic cell to send a series
46) At the level of an individual neuron, what is associated with nervous system plasticity?
changes in synaptic contacts with other neurons
47) What must happen in order for a neuron to regenerate?
must be in the PNS , the cell body must remain intact
48) What is neurogenesis?
occurs in the embryonic brain, occurs in the hippocampus even during adulthood, is inhibited by neurological products in most areas of the CNS, is inhibited by the absence of fetal growth stimulating factors
49) What are some of the events that happen after a neural injury?
NOT the first observable sign of injury to a neuron is wallerian degeneration
50) What is epilepsy?
results from abnormal, synochronous (happening at the same time) discharge of neurons in the brain
51) What provides protection for the spinal cord?
vertebra, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid
52) Place the meninges and associated spaces in order from most superficial to deepest.
epidural space, dura mater, subdural space, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, pia mater
53) What is true about the arachnoid matter?
NOT it is mostly vascular meninx
54) What is the spinal cord contiguous with?
the medulla oblonga **(oblongata?)
55) CJ and Tye are studying a model of cross-section of the spinal cord in lab. CJ is confused about which side
of the model is anterior vs. which is posterior. Tye says that it is easy to tell which side is which. What does Tye
use to distinguish between the sides of the model?
The Posterior side - Ganglion
Anterior side is deeper and wider
56) What makes up the gray matter of the spinal cord?
contains he cell bodies and dendrites of neurons
57) What does the gray matter of the spinal cord do?
somatic muscle nucleus
58) What is the white matter of the spinal cord?
divided into anterior, posterior, and lateral columns, contains ascending mylenated axons in groups called sensory tracts, contains descending mylenated axons in groups called motor tracts.
59) A tumor is growing in the left lateral horns of several segments of a patient’s spinal cord. How might these
tumors affect the patient?
difficulty regulating cardiac and smooth muscle contraction
60) What do the spinal nerves do?
have anterior root ganglia containing cell bodies of motor neurons
61) How are spinal nerves identified and are they made up of?
identified based on the region and level of vertebral column from which they emerge, are mixed nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers
62) How are the connective tissue coverings of nerve fibers organized?
are organized in a similar manner to those of muscle fibers
63) What makes up the branches of a spinal nerve?
NOT: dorsal root
64) A patient is transported to the emergency room after being stabbed in the back several times with a
broken ice pick. The attacker was apparently aiming for the spinal cord, but was not successful in penetrating the
vertebrae. The physician is most worried about one wound; he mutters something about the rami communicantes.
Why would the physician be concerned about damaged there?
65) Which spinal nerves go directly to the tissues they supply rather than forming a plexus?
66) Which plexus supplies the skin and muscles of the head, neck, and superior part of the shoulders and
67) Which nerve does NOT arise from the cervical plexus?
68) Which plexus supplies the skin and muscles of the shoulders and upper extremities?
69) Which nerve arises from the brachial plexus
suprascaupula, axillary, musculocutaneous
70) Which nerve does NOT arise from the brachial plexus?
71) Which plexus supplies the anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitals, and part of the lower limbs?
72) Which nerve does NOT arise from the lumbar plexus?
73) Which plexus supplies the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs?
74) Which nerve arises from the sacral plexus?
sciatic, superior gluteal
75) Which plexus supplies a small area of skin in the coccygeal region?
76) What is a dermatome?
band of skin that gives sensory information to the CNS
77) How does the spinal cord function in maintaining homeostasis?
nuclei in spinal cord gray matter receive and integrate incoming and outgoing information, ascending tracts in white matter propagate sensory impulses towards the brain, descending tracts in white matter propagate motor impulses towards effectors
78) Which spinal cord tracts are a sensory tract?
posterior column, anterior spinal thalamic track
79) Which type of sensory information is NOT carried by spinothalamic tracts?
80) Which type of sensory information is NOT carried by posterior column tracts?
81) What makes up the direct motor pathways of the spinal cord?
control spinal tract and bulbar tracks and bulbar cortical.
82) What are the functions of indirect motor pathways in the spinal cord?
NOT: coordinate body movements with olfactory stimuli
83) Mark goes to visit his friend, Frank, who is home on leave from the war. Frank doesn’t hear Mark call out
to him because he is wearing headphones and listening to music. When Mark walks up behind Frank and taps him
on the shoulder, he soon finds himself on the ground with one of Frank’s hands around his neck and the other in a
fist rapidly approaching his nose. Frank’s reaction is an example of what kind of reflex?
84) What makes up a spinal reflex arc?
85) What makes up a somatic spinal reflex?
86) What is a stretch reflex?
monosynaptic reflex occurs in response to the stretching of a muscle, can be observed at the elbow, wrist, knee, and ankle.
87) Place the events that in a stretch reflex in the order in which they occur.
generation of impulse by muscle spindle, stimulation of muscle spindle, propagation of impulse along sensory neuron in anterior grey horn, prorogation of motor impulse, release of of ach from motor neuron, stimulation of muscle contraction.
88) What is reciprocal innervation?
All of the above
89) How does a tendon reflex differ from a stretch reflex?
a tendon reflex uses golgi tendon organs are sensory receptors instead of muscle spindles
90) Place the events of a tendon reflex in the order in which they occur.
91) What is true of a flexor reflex?
92) What is true of the crossed extensor reflex?
NOT: involves 1 spinal segment
93) What reflexes are typically used for diagnosing neurological disorders?
NOT crossed extensor reflex
94) What is the patellar reflex?
Helps asses l2-l4
95) A man gently strokes the lateral sole of his wife’s foot, and her toes curl toward the sole. He strokes his
six month old baby’s foot, and the baby’s big toe flexes up toward his tibia. Should the man be concerned about
the health of either his wife or his child?
No, they are both exhibiting normal Babinski signs for their ages
96) A U.N. worker was part of a crew clearing land mines from a school yard. Unfortunately one of the mines
went off, sending shrapnel into the worker’s neck. Now the worker’s right arm is paralyzed, but he has retained
the functions of his other limbs. Which term describes his condition?
97) A 3 year old fell out of a second story window. The paramedics on the scene note that the child is areflexic
below T1, with slow heart rate, flaccid skeletal muscle paralysis, and loss of somatic sensation. The child displays
the signs of what?
98) What signs would be displayed by a patient suffering from a hemisection of the spinal cord that damaged
her right posterior column and lateral corticospinal tract but not her spinothalamic tract at L2?
Loss of propioception, muscle contraction, proposeption
99) Which spinal cord injury or condition has a positive prognosis?
Recently developed spinal cord compression due to a herniated disk at L4