chapters 14, 16 (For week 10) Flashcards Preview

patho > chapters 14, 16 (For week 10) > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapters 14, 16 (For week 10) Deck (29)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the term for parasitic relationships between microorganisms and the human body in which the human body is harmed?

a. Infectious disease
b. Mutual disease
c. Communicable disease
d. Commensal disease

a. Infectious disease

2

The infectious agents that cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever and epidemic typhus are transmitted to the human body via vector such as a tick. What are these infectious agents?

a. Viruses
b. Rickettsiae
c. Chlamydiae
d. Ehrlichiae

b. Rickettsiae

3

Sever acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a highly transmissible respiratory infection, crossed international borders in the winter of 2002. What terms are used to describe the outbreak of SARS?

a. Pandemic and nosocomial
b. Regional and endemic
c. Epidemic and pandemic
d. Nosocomial and Endemic

c. Epidemic and pandemic

4

The clinical picture, or presentation of a disease in the body, is called what?

a. Virulence of the disease
b. Source of the disease
c. Diagnosis of the disease
d. Symptomatology of the disease

d. Symptomatology of the disease

5

There are two criteria that have to be met in order for a diagnosis of an infectious disease to occur. What are these two criteria?

a. Recovery of probable pathogen and documentation of signs and symptoms compatible with an infectious process.
b. Propagation of a microorganism outside the body and testing to see what destroys it.
c. Identification by microscopic appearance and Gram stain reaction.
d. Serology and an antobody titer specific to the serology

a. Recovery of probable pathogen and documentation of signs and symptoms compatible with an infectious process.

6

Levels A, B, and C are levels assigned to potential agents of bioterrorism. What are these categorical assignments based on?

a.Safety to terrorist
b. Transmissibility
c. Environmental impact
d. Ease of use to terrorist

b. Transmissibility

7

Global infectious diseases are now being recognized. These diseases, known as endemic to one part of the world, are now being found in other parts of the world because of international travel and a global marketplace. Which of the following is considered a global infectious disease?

a. Coxsackie disease
b. Respiratory syncytial disease
c. West Nile virus
d. Hand, foot, and mouth disease

c. West Nile virus

8

Which of the following sequences accurately describes the stages of a disease?

a. Incubation, prodromal, current, recovery, and resolution
b. Subacute, prodromal, acute, postacute, and convalescent
c. Prodromal, subacute, acute, postdromal, and resolution
d. Incubation, prodromal, acute, convalescent, and resolution

d. Incubation, prodromal, acute, convalescent, and resolution

9

Sometimes the host's white blood cells are unable to eliminate the microorganism, but the body is able to contain the dissemination of the pathogen. What is this called?

a. Abcess
b. Pimple
c. Lesion
d. Acne

a. Abcess

10

Escherichia coli (E. coli) produces an exotoxin called Shiga toxin that enters the body when you eat undercooked hamburger meat and fruit juices that are not pastuerized. What can E. coli infection cause?

a. Nephritic syndrome
b. Hemorrhagic colitis
c. Hemolytic thrombocytopenia
d. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

b. Hemorrhagic colitis

11

Transmissible neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are associated with _____________?

prions

12

___________________Infections refer to vertically transmitted infections, infections that are transmitted form mother to infant.

congenital

13

Infection passed from mother to child at birth

Perinatal infection

14

Infection passed at a health care facility

Nosocomial infection

15

Infection passed from animals to humans

Zoonoses

16

Infections acquired from the client's own body

Opportunistic infections

17

Infectious agents produce products or substances called virulence factors that make it easier for them to cause disease. Which of these are virulence factors? (Mark all that apply)

a. invasive factors
b. Prodromal factors
c. Adhesion factors
d. Toxins
e. Evasive factors

a. invasive factors
c. Adhesion factors
d. Toxins
e. Evasive factors

18

Evasive factors, one type pf virulence factor, are factors produced by infectious microorganisms to keep the host's immune system from destroying the microorganism. Which of these are evasive factors? (Mark all that apply)

a. Capsules
b. Phospholipases
c. Collagenases
d. Slime
e. Mucous layers

a. Capsules
d. Slime
e. Mucous layers

19

Infants are born with a passive immunity that occurs when immunoglobulin antibodies cross the placenta from the maternal circulation prior to birth. Which immunoglobulin is capable of crossing the placenta?

a. IgM
b. IgD
c. IgG
d. IgE

c. IgG

20

Drug-induced secondary hypogammaglobulinemia is considered reversible. Which drugs produce hypogammaglobulinemia? (Mark all that apply)

a. Phenytoin
b. Corticosteroids
c. Carbamazepine
d. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs
e. Interferon beta-1a drugs

a. Phenytoin
b. Corticosteroids
c. Carbamazepine
d. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

21

Primary cell-mediated disorders of the immune system cause sever problems with infections. children with these disorders rarely survive beyond childhood without a bone marrow transplant. Which of the following is a disease that involves primary cell-mediated disorders of the immune system?

a. DiGeorge syndrome
b. Y-linked hyper-IgM syndrome
c. X-linked agammaglobulinemia
d. Y-linked agammaglobulinemia

a. DiGeorge syndrome

22

Combined immunodeficiancy syndrome is a disorder in which both B and T lymphocytes are affected. This results in defects in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. What could be the cause of this disorder?

a. Multiple misplaced genes that influence lymphocyte development and response
b. A single mutation in any gene that influences major histocompatibility antigens
c. A single misplaced gene that influences major histocompatibility
d. Multiple mutations in genes that influence lymphocyte development and response.

b. A single mutation in any gene that influences major histocompatibility antigens

23

Combined immunodeficiency (CID) is distinguished by low, not absent, T-cell function. These diseases are usually associated with other disorders and arise from diverse genetic causes. Which of the following diseases is considered a CID?

a. Pierre-Robin syndrome
b. Angelman syndrome
c. Ataxia-telangiectasia
d. Adair-Dighton syndrome

c. Ataxia-telangiectasia

24

The immune system typically responds to invaders of all types in our body. However, it can also cause tissue injury and disease. What is this effect called?

a. Hypersensitivity reaction
b. Antigen reaction
c. Mediator response reaction
d. Allergen stimulating reaction

a. Hypersensitivity reaction

25

Some people are so sensitive to certain antigens that they react within minutes by developing itching, hives, and skin erythema, followed shortly thereafter by bronchospasm and respiratory distress. What is this commonly known as?

a. Antigen reaction
b. Anaphylactic reaction
c. Hyposensitive reaction
d. Arthus reaction

b. Anaphylactic reaction

26

A systemic immune complex disorder that is caused by insoluble antigen-antibody complexes being deposited in blood vessles, the joints, the heart, or kidney tissue is called what?

a. Anti-immune disease
b. Systemic lupus erythematosus
c. Serum sickness
d. Antigen-antibody sickness

c. Serum sickness

27

The incidence of latex allergy is skyrocketing because of diseases such as HIV. It is known that the use of latex examining gloves has played a major role in the increasing incidence of latex allergy. What plays a significant role in the allergic response to latex gloves?

Baking powder used inside the gloves
b. Airborne pieces of latex
c. Latex proteins that attach to clothing
d. Cornstarch powder used inside the gloves

d. Cornstarch powder used inside the gloves

28

A transplant reaction that occurs immediately after transplantation is caused by _______________ antibodies that are present.

antidonor

29

It has been postulated that an autoimmune disease needs a "trigger" event for it to clinically manifest itself in a body. What are these "trigger events" thought to be? (Mark all that apply)

a. A microorganism or virus
b. A self-antigen from a previously sequestered body tissue
c. A breakdown in the antigen-antibody response
d. a chemical substance
e. A systemic ability for self tolerance

a. A microorganism or virus
b. A self-antigen from a previously sequestered body tissue
d. a chemical substance