Chapters 15-18 Flashcards Preview

Principles of Marketing 15-21 > Chapters 15-18 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 15-18 Deck (149):
1

The Decisions and activities that make products available to customers when and where they want to purchase

Distribution

1

All the activities associated with the flow and transformation of products from raw materials through to the end

Supply chain

2

The total set of managerial activities used by an organization to transform resource inputs into products, services, or both

Operations management

3

Planning, implementing, an controlling the efficient and effective flow and storage of products and information from the point of origin to consumption to meet customers' needs and wants

Logistics management

4

In it broadest form, refers to the processes that enable the progress of value from raw material to final customer and back to redesign and final disposition

Supply management

5

A set of approaches used to integrate the functions of operations management, logistics management, supply management, and marketing channel management so products are produced and distributed in the right quantities, to the right locations, and at the right time

Supply-chain management

6

A group of individuals and organizations that direct the flow of products from producers to customers within the supply chain

Marketing channel

7

Middlemen that link producers to other intermediaries or ultimate consumers through contractual arrangements or through the purchase and resale of products

Marketing intermediaries

8

An independent business organization that takes title to industrial products and carries inventories

industrial distributor

9

The use of two or more marketing channels to distribute the same products to the same target market

dual distribution

10

An agreement whereby the products of one organization are distributed through the marketing channels of another

strategic channel alliance

11

Using all available outlets to distribute a product

intensive distribution

12

Using only some available outlets in an area to distribute a product

selective distribution

13

Using a single outlet in a fairly large geographic area to distribute a product

exclusive distribution

14

The dominant leader of a marketing channel or a supply channel

channel captain

15

The ability of one channel member to influence another member's goal achievement

channel power

16

Combing two or more stages of the marketing cannel under one management

vertical channel integration

17

A marketing channel managed by a single channel member to achieve efficient, low-cost distribution aimed at satisfying target market customers

vertical marketing system (VMS)

18

Combining organizations at the same level of operation under one management

horizontal channel integration

19

Activities used to move products from producers to consumers and other end users

*physical distribution

20

the time needed to complete a process

cycle time

21

The receipt and transmission of sales order information

order processing

22

A computerized means of integrating order processing with production, inventor, accounting, and transportation

electronic data interchange (EDI)

23

enveloping and maintaining adequate assortments of products to meet customers' needs

inventory management

24

An inventory management approach in which supplies arrive just when needed for production or resale

just-in-time (JIT)

25

physical handling of tangible goods, supplies, and resources

materials handling

26

The design and operation of facilities for storing and moving goods

warehousing

27

company-operated facilities for storing and shipping products

private warehouses

28

storage space and related physical distribution facilities that can be leased by companies

public warehouses

29

Large, centralized warehouses that focus on moving rather than storing goods

distribution centers

30

The movement of products from where they are made to intermediaries and end users

transportation

31

Two or more transportation modes used in combination

intermodal transportation

32

Organizations that consolidate shipments from several firms into efficient lot sizes

freight forwarders

33

Freight transportation firms that provide several mods of shipment

megacarriers

34

An agreement in which a supplier furnishes a product to a channel number with the stipulation that the channel member must purchase other products as well

*tying agreement

35

A situation in which a manufacturer forbids an intermediary from carrying products of competing manufacturers

exclusive dealing

36

All transactions in which the buyer intends to consume the product through personal, family, or household use

retailing

37

An organization that purchases products for the purpose of reselling them to ultimate consumers

retailer

38

A retail establishment that offers a variety of product lines that are stocked in considerable depth

general-merchandise

39

Large retail organizations characterized by a wide product mix and organized into separate departments to facilitate marketing efforts and internal management

department stores

40

Self-service, general-mechandise stores that offer brand-name and private-brand products at low prices

discount stores

41

A small self-service store that is open long hours and carries a narrow assortment of products, usually convenience products

convenience store

42

Large, self-service stores that carry a complete line of food products, along with some nonfood products

supermarkets

43

Giant retail outlets that carry food and nonfood products found in supermarkets, as well as most routinely purchased consumer products

superstores

44

Stores that combine supermarket and discount store shopping in one location

hypermarkets

45

Large-scale, members-only establishments that combine features of cash-and-carry wholesaling with discount retailing

warehouse clubs

46

Retail facilities in large, low-cost buildings with large on -premises inventories and minimal services

warehouse showrooms

47

Stores that carry a narrow product mix with deep product lines

traditional specialty retailers

48

A very large specialty store that concentrates on a major product category and competes on the basis of low prices and product availability

*category killer

49

Stores that buy manufacturers' seconds, overruns, returns, and off-season merchandise for resale to consumers at deep discounts

off-price retailers

50

A type of shopping center usually consisting of several small convenience and specialty stores

neighborhood shopping center

51

A type of shopping center with one or two department stores, some specialty stores, and convenience stores

community shopping center

52

A type of shopping center with the largest department stores, widest product mixes, and deepest product lines of all shopping centers

regional shopping center

53

A type of shopping center with the widest and deepest product mixes that attracts customers from many miles away

super regional shopping centers

54

A type of shopping center that is typically open air and features upscale specialty, dining, and entertainment stores

lifestyle shopping center

55

A type of shopping center that combines off-price stores with category killers

power shopping center

56

Identifying an unserved or undeserved market segment and serving it through a strategy that distinguishes the retail from others in the minds of consumers in that segment

*retail positioning

57

The physical elements in a store's design that appeal to consumers' emotions and encouraging buying

atmospherics

58

A retail strategy of managing groups of similar, often substitutable products produced by different manufactures

category management

59

The use of the telephone, Internet, and non personal media to introduce products to customers, who can then purchase them via mail, telephone, or the Internet

direct marketing

60

The selling of products outside the confines of a retail facility

nonstore retailing

61

A type of marketing in which an organization provided a catalog from which customers make selections and place orders by mail, telephone, or the internet

catalog marketing

62

A type of marketing in which a retailer advertises a product and makes it available through mail or telephone orders

direct-response marketing

63

The performance of marketing-related activities by telephone

telemarketing

64

A form of selling in which products are presented to television viewers, who can buy them by calling a toll-free number and paying with a credit card

television home shopping

65

Retailing that makes products available to buyers through computer connections

online retailing

66

Marketing products to ultimate consumers through face-to-face sales presentations at home or in the workplace

direct selling

67

The use of machines to dispense products

automatic vending

68

An arrangement in which a supplier (franchiser) grants a dealer (franchisee) the right to sell products in exchange for some type of consideration

franchising

69

Transactions in which products are bought for resale, for making other products, or for general business operations

wholesaling

70

An individual or organization that sells products that are bought for resale, for making other products, or for general business operations

wholesaler

71

Independently owned businesses that take title to goods, assume ownership risks, and buy and resell products to other wholesalers, business customers, or retailers.

merchant wholesalers

72

Merchant wholesalers that perform the widest range of wholesaling functions

full-service wholesalers

73

Full-service wholesalers with a wide product mix but limited depth within product lines

general-merchandise wholesalers

74

Full-service wholesalers that carry only a few product lines but many products within those lines

limited-line wholesalers

75

Full-service wholesalers that carry only a single product line or a few items within a product line

specialty-line wholesalers

76

Full-service, specialty-line wholesalers that own and maintain display racks in stores

rack jobbers

77

Merchant wholesalers that provide some services and specialize in a few functions

limited-service wholesalers

78

Limited-service wholesalers whose customers pay cash and furnish transportation

cash-and-carry wholesalers

79

Limited-service wholesalers that transport products directly to customers for inspection and selection

truck wholesalers

80

Limited-service wholesalers that take title to goods and negotiate sales but never actually take possession of products

drop shippers

81

Limited-service wholesalers that sell products through catalogs

mail-order wholesalers

82

Intermediaries that represent either buyers or sellers on a permanent basis

agents

83

Intermediaries that bring buyer and sellers together temporarily

brokers

84

Independent intermediaries that represent two or more sellers and usually offer customers complete product lines

manufacturers' agents

85

Intermediaries that market a whole product line or a manufacturer's entire output

selling agents

86

Agents that receive goods on consignment from local sellers and negotiate sales in large, central market

commission merchants

87

Manufacturer owned intermediaries that sell products and prove support services to the manufacturer's sales force

sales branches

88

Manufacturer owned operations that provide services normally associated with agents

sales offices

89

Coordination of promotion and other marketing efforts for maximum informational and persuasive impact

*Integrated marketing communications

90

A person, group, or organization with a meaning it tries to share with a receiver or an audience

source

91

The individual, group, or organization that decodes a coded message

receiver

92

Converting meaning into a series of signs or symbols

coding process

93

The medium of transmission that carries the coded message from the source to the receiver

*Communications channel

94

Converting signs or symbols into concepts and ideas

decoding process

95

Anything that reduces a communication's clarity and accuracy

noise

96

The receiver's response to a decoded message

feedback

97

The limit on the volume of information a communication channel can handle effectively

channel capacity

98

communication to build and maintain relationships by informing and persuading one or more audiences

promotion

99

Demand for a product category rather than for a specific brand

primary demand

100

Promotion that informs consumers about a new product

pioneer promotion

101

Demand for a specific brand

selective demand

102

A combination of promotional methods used to promote a specific product

*promotion mix

103

Communicating through the movement of head, eyes, arms, hands, legs, or torso.

kinesic communication

104

Communication by varying the physical distance in face-to-to face interactions

proxemic communication

105

Communicating through touching

tactile communication

106

Promoting a product only to the next institution down the marketing channel

push policy

107

Promoting a product directly to consumers to develop strong consumer demand that pulls products through the marketing channel

pull policy

108

Personal informal exchanges of communication that customers share with one another about products, brands, and companies

word-of-mouth communication

109

An attempt to incite publicity and public excitement surrounding a product through a creative event

buzz marketing

110

A strategy to get consumers to share a marketer's message, often through e-mail or online videos, in a way that spreads dramatically and quickly

viral marketing

111

The strategic location of products or product promotions within entertainment media content to reach the product's target market

*Product placement

112

Paid non personal communication about an organization and its products transmitted to a target audience through mass media

advertising

113

Advertising that promotes organizational images, ideas, and political issues

*Institutional advertising

114

Advertising that promote a company's position on a public issue

advocacy advertising

115

Advertising that promotes the uses, features, and benefits of products

product advertising

116

Advertising that tries to stimulate demand for a product category rather than a specific brand by informing potential buyers about the product

pioneer advertising

117

Tries to stimulate demand for a specific brand by promoting its features, uses, and advantages relative to competing brands

*competitive advertising

118

Compares the sponsored brand with one or more identified brands on the basis of one or more product characteristics

*comparative advertising

119

Advertising used to remind consumers about an established brand's uses, characteristics, and benefits

reminder advertising

120

Advertising that assures users they chose the right brand and tells them how to get the most satisfaction from it

reinforcement advertising

121

The creation and execution of a series of advertisements to communicate with a particular target audience

advertising campaign

122

the group of people at whom advertisements are aimed

target audience

123

Basic issues or selling points to be included in an advertising campaign

advertising platform

124

The advertising budget for a specific time period

advertising appropriation

125

Budgeting for an advertising campaign by first determine its objectives and then calculating the cost of all the tasks needed to attain them

objective-and-task approach

126

Budgeting for an advertising campaign by multiplying the firm's past an expected sales by a standard percentage

percent-of-sales approach

127

Determining an advertising budget by trying to match competitor's advertising outlays

competition-matching approach

128

Budgeting for an advertising campaign as specified by a high-level executive in the firm

arbitrary approach

129

A plan that specifies the media vehicles to be used and the schedule for running advertisements

media plan

130

A means of comparing the costs of advertising vehicles in a specific medium in relation to the number of people reached

cost comparison indicator

131

Versions of a magazine that differ across geographic regions

regional issues

132

The verbal portion of advertisements

copy

133

A blueprint that combines copy and visual material to show the sequence of major scenes in a commercial

storyboard

134

An advertisements illustrations and layout

artwork

135

Photos, drawings, graphs, charts, and tables used to spark audience interest in an advertisement

illustrations

136

The physical arrangement of an advertisement's illustration and copy

layout

137

Evaluation of advertisements performed before a campaign begins

pretest

138

A panel of a products existing or potential buyers who pretest ads

consumer jury

139

evaluation of advertising effectiveness after the campaign

posttest

140

A posttest in which respondents are shown the actual ad and are asked if they recognize it

recognition test

141

A posttest in which respondents are asked to identify advertisements they have seen recently but are not given any recall clues

unaided recall test

142

A posttest that asks respondents to identify recent ads and provides clues to jog their memories

aided recall test

143

Communication efforts used to create and maintain favorable relations between an organization and its stakeholders

public relations

144

A news story type of communication about an organization and/or its products transmitted through a mass medium at no charge

publicity

145

A short piece of copy publicizing an event or a product

news release

146

a manuscript of up to 3,000 words prepared for a specific publication

feature article

147

A photograph with a brief description of its content

captioned photograph

148

A meeting used to announce major news events

press conference