Chapters 3-4 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapters 3-4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 3-4 Deck (100):
1

What is the barrier between a cell and its environment?

plasma membrane

2

how are phospholipid molecules arranged within the lipid bylayer of the plasma membrane

hydrophillic heads face outwards

3

the reason the lipid bilayer of a plasma membrane is assymetric is that

glycolipids appear only in the layer that faces the extracellullar fluid

4

describe the various plasma membrane proteins
integral proteins?

extend into or through the lipid bilayer around the fatty acid tails and are firmly embedded in it

5

describe the various plasma membrane proteins
transmembrane proteins?

span the entire lipid bilayer and protrude into both the cytosol and extracellular fluid

6

describe the various plasma membrane proteins
peripheral proteins

not as firmly embedded into the membrane, attached to the polar heads of the membrane lipids or into integral proteins at the inner or outer surface of the membranes

7

describe the various plasma membrane proteins
glycoproteins

proteins with carbohydrate groups attached at the ends that protrude into the extracellullar fluid

8

what are the functions of plamsa membrane proteins?

form ion channels, carrers, receptors, enzymes, linkers,

9

what is unique about the plasma membrane?

semi permeable

10

an electrochemical gradient requires a difference in the

combined influence of concentration gradiene and charge distrbutions

11

mechanisms that allow movement of materials acros a plasma membrane include

kinetic, transporter proteins, vesicle

12

the cell does not need to expend energy in order to perform what?

simple diffusion

13

what are aquaporins?

integral membrane proteins that function as water channels

14

osmmosis is considered a special case of diffusion because

water moves down its own gradient

15

red blood cell membranes are not normally permeable to NaCi and maintain an intracelllullar concentration of 0.9%. if these cells are placed in a solution containting 9% NaCI what would happen?

crenation

16

what is it called when solutes move down a concentration gradient

facilitated diffusion

17

what d endocytosis exocytosis and transcytosis have in common

all forms of active transport and they all use vesicles

18

intracellullar structures which have specific shapes and functions are called

organelles

19

cytoskeleton does what

maintain shape of cell and organize intracellullar contents 18-19

20

the subunits of a ribosome are produced in the

nucleolus (RNA)

21

secretory proteins and membrane molecules are synthesized mainly by the

Rough ER

22

which cell organelle is the site of fatty acid, phospholipid, and steroid synthesis?

smooth ER

23

the golgi complex is most extensive in cells that

secrete protein into extracellular fluid

24

recycling of worn out organelles is accomplished it autophagy which is carried out by the

lysosomes

25

toxic hydrogen peroxide resulting from oxidation reactions is broken down by an enzyme in peroxisomes called

catalase

26

the organnelles that contain many kinds of proteases and are responsible for destruction of the unnecessary proteins are the

perixisomes

27

powerhouses of the cell, most important site of ATP production is found in

mitochondria

28

cyanide and azide block the reactions of cellular respiration. which organelle do they target?

mitochondria

29

17. most microfiliments are composed of

protein actin

30

the complex of DNA that are associated with protein and some RNA is called

chromatid

31

the genetic information is coded in DNA by

sequence of nucleotides

32

the RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the factory site for protein formation is

transfer RNA

33

the process of transcripption involves production of

DNA template

34

list the phases of the cell cycle in the correct sequence

G1 to S phase to G2 to Mitosis to cytokensis

35

the end result of mitosis in productions is

two identical cells

36

what is cytokensis

division of cytoplasm and organnelles into 2 identical cells, happens before anaphase

37

what do tumor supressor genes normally inhibit

cell division

38

what forms the bilayer that seperates cell from environment?

phospholipid

39

what acts as gates, allowing ions to cross the plasma membrane

integral proteins

40

whatcontains all cell contents betwen plasma membrane and nucleus

cytoplasm

41

what transportation mechanism allows ingestion of solid particles by white blood cells

phagoctosis

42

what is involved in active transport?

moves ions against concentration gradient

43

what mechanism allows polar covalent compounds to move down their concentration gradients and cross the plasma membrane

facillitated diffusion

44

what organelles are involved in synthesis, proccessing and packaging of proteins

ribosomes, RER golgi complex

45

what organelles contain enzymes that break down molecules

lysosomes, peroxisomes, proteasomes

46

what structure moves materials past cells or move cells

cilia and flagella

47

what is the triplet in DNA coding?

a sequence of three nucleotides

48

what is involved in the translation of DNA

translation, uses RNA and ribosomes to assemble proteins

49

what is involved in transcription

RNA

50

what can result from uncontrolled cell division

cancer

51

What are the four basic (primary) types of tissues

Epithelial,connective,muscular,nervousl

52

Which tissue forms coverings, linings, and glands

Epithelial

53

Which of the primary tissue types detects and responds to changes in the environment in order to
maintain homeostasis?

Nervous

54

Which are the first tissues that form in the human embryo?

Primary germ layers>endoderm,mesoderm,ectoderm,

55

What is unique about cell junctions?

?

56

The type of cell junction that prevents the contents of the stomach or urinary bladder from leaking into
surrounding tissues is the:

NOT some cell junctions fuse inner surfaces of plasma membranes

57

Which cell junctions prevent epidermal cells from separating under tension?

Adherens

58

Which cell junctions links cells to each other?

Tight,adherens,desmosomes,and gap junctions; not hemioesmosomes

59

A pathologist examines a thin slice of tissue with a microscope and notes numerous cells packed tightly
together. No intercellular space or blood vessel is noted between cells, but the cells have polarity. One side of the cells opens into a cavity, and the other is attached to a thin layer of extracellular material. Several of the cells are in some stage of mitosis. Which primary tissue type does the pathologist see?

Epithelial tissue

60

Epithelial tissues are classified based on

Arrangement of cells into layers and cell shapes
Answer is NOT epithelial (on test)

61

The function of the basement membrane is to:

.provide point of attachment and support for overlaying epithelial tissue; attaches epithelial tissue to connective tissue

62

What is the modification to columnar epithelium that increases surface area?

Micro villia and cilia

63

Keratin is seen in tissues that

Resist friction ( simple colmumnar epitheilal) answer on test

64

What is a Papanicolaou smear?

Collection and microscopic examination of epithelial cells scraped off apical layer of tissue

65

What is the primary function of glandular epithelia?

Secretion

66

What composes connective tissues?

Cells and extracellular matrix ( protein fibers and ground fibers)

67

What kind of tissue classification includes immature–blast cells that retain their mitotic ability?

Connective tissue

68

What is a matrix?

.material located between secreted by connective tissue cells: composed of protein fibers and ground fibers

69

Why does hyaluronidase enhance the diffusion of injected drugs?

Lowers viscosity of the matrix of areolar connective tissue

70

What is the role of connective tissue ground substance?

Supports cells, binds them together, stores water, provides a medium thru which substances are exchanged between blood and cells

71

What do connective tissue fibers do?

Strengthen support stretch

72

The connective tissue widely distributed in the embryo but scarcely remaining in adult is

Embryonic connective cell

73

Which connective tissue combines with adipose tissue to form the subcutaneous layer that attaches the
skin to underlying structures?

Hyaline cartilage

74

Which connective tissue stores triglycerides and provides cushioning and support for organs?

Adipocytes

75

Tendons and ligaments must withstand tension along the axis of their fibers. These structures are
composed of

Dense regular connective tissue (areoler)

76

What is cartilage composed of?

Collagen fibers

77

The connective tissue that stores Ca2+ and supports the body is

Bone tissue

78

The connective tissue that has a liquid matrix is

Blood tissue

79

Flat sheets of flexible tissue found covering or lining large portions of the body

Epithelial tissue

80

What membranes are classified as an epithelial membrane?

Mucous membranes, simple squamous epithelium, simple cuboidal epithelium,nonciliated simple columnar epithelium, ciliated simple columnar epithelium, pseudo stratified epithelium, stratified squamous epithelium,stratified cuboidal epithelium, stratified columnar epi, transitional epithelium

81

Which type of membrane is found lining any body cavity that opens directly to the exterior?

Glandular epithelium

82

The space between the parietal and visceral layers of a membrane that lines a body cavity that does not
open directly to the environment normally contains:

Mesothelium (NOT synovial)

83

What makes up muscle tissue ?

Muscle fibers or myocites

84

What is skeletal muscle tissue composed of?

Long, cylindrical, striated fibers, varying in length

85

What is the primary function of cardiac muscle?

Pump blood to all parts of the bod

86

Where is smooth muscle tissue found?

Iris, walls of hollow internal structures such as blood vessels,airways to lungs, stomach, intestines, gallbladder,urinary bladder,and uterus

87

How are the types of muscle tissue alike?

All use ATP to generate force

88

What does nervous tissue consist of?

Neurons and neuralgia (NOT between ribs)

89

Some cells have the ability to respond to stimuli by generating signals such as action potentials. These cells are

(both striated and involuntary)

90

The process that replaces damaged or dead cells is

Tissue regeneration

91

Which cells are used in completely repairing a damaged tissue’s structure and function?

excitable cells, muscle fibers, neurons

92

What factors will positively impact tissue repair?

Nutrition and blood circulation

93

What occurs as tissues age

It gets thinner and weaker (parenchymel cells)

94

What is true concerning disorders of epithelial tissues?

Mainly affects specific individual organs.

95

What is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?

Autoimmune disease in the connective tissue that affects mostly non white women in childbearing age

96

What are a group of cells with common origin, similar structure and specific function called?

Tissue

97

What forms glands, coverings and linings; high degree of cellularityand is avascular

Epithelial tissue
(inflamatory disease of connective tissue)

98

Compare the function and structures of the muscle tissues.

Muscle

99

missing flashcard

missing answer

100

missing fflashcard

missing answer