Chapters 35 & 37 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 35 & 37 Deck (32):
1

What does a root system provide to plants?

H2O and minerals

2

What does the shoot system provide?

CO2 and sunlight

3

Could a plant exist if it only had one of the two systems?

No

4

Three functions of roots

Anchors a plant in soil
Absorbs minerals and H2O
Storage

5

Difference between a taproot and lateral roots?

Taproot-1 main vertical root
Lateral roots-branch off of taproots

6

Root hairs provide lots of ____ for the diffusion of water and minerals?

Surface area

7

Stems help position leaves to increase their exposure to ____

Sunlight

8

Difference between axillary and apical buds?

Axillary-off to the side
Apical-at the top

9

Apical dominance helps a plant grow ____ which is useful if it's in the ____

Taller, shade

10

Leaf diagram

See chapter notes

11

A waxy cuticles on most above ground surfaces helps prevent ____

Water loss

12

Xylem carries ____ in what direction?

Water, upward

13

Phloem carries ____ in what direction?

Sugar, downward

14

List soil textures from biggest to smallest

Sand, silt, clay

15

Soil consists of layers called

Horizons

16

The A Horizon, which contains both mineral particles and partially decomposed organic matter, is called

Topsoil

17

Partially decomposed matter is called

Humus

18

Soil with equal contributions from all three particle sizes, and is best for growing plants, is called

Loam

19

Most soil particles are ____ charged

Negatively

20

Ions that stick to soil particles are protected from being lost through the process of ____ as water moves through the soil

Leaching

21

Process of being washed out of the soil

Leaching

22

These ions are transferred between soil particles and the soil solution in the process of

Cation exchange

23

Four advantages of soil that's high in organic matter

Holds onto water
Holds onto nutrients
Organic matter releases nutrients as it breaks down
Good texture for roots to grow through

24

_____ agriculture protects both the environment and the livelihood of farmers

Sustainable

25

Worldwide agriculture accounts for ____% or human water use

75

26

The 3 mineral nutrients found in most fertilizers are

Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus

27

Plowing speeds up the process of ____ by both water and wind

Erosion

28

Type of farming which reduces erosion

No-till farming

29

Required for the plant to complete its life cycle

Essential element

30

How do you know if an element is an essential element for a particular plant?

Try to grow a plant with all other elements except that one and see if it completes its life cycle

31

9 macronutrients

Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium

32

Diagram of a plant

See chapter notes