CHAPTERS 7, 8, 9, 10 EXAM Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CHAPTERS 7, 8, 9, 10 EXAM Deck (55):
1

CARRYING CAPACITY

THE MAXIMUM AMT. OF INDIVIDUALS THAT COULD LIVE IN THE ENVIRONMENT

2

PARASITISM

THE PARASITE INVADES THE HOST AND USES IT FOR FOOD AND SHELTER.

- PARASITES HAVE ADAPTED TO LIVING OFF A HSOT W/O KILLING IT (SLOWLY USE RESOURCES)
-PARASITE BENEFITS, HOST IS HARMED

EX: TAPEWORM AND A DOG; TAPEWORM LIVES IN DOG'S STOMACH AND GETS FOOD AND DOG BECOMES ILL

3

MUTUALISM

A REALTIONSIP IN WHICH BOTH SPECIES ARE BENEFITED IN SOME WAY

EX: BEE AND A FLOWER; BEE GETS FOOD (NECTAR) AND FLOWER GETS POLLENATED

4

PREDATION

A REALTIONSHIP IN WHICH ONE SPECIES KILLS AND EATS ANOTHER IN ORDER TO SURVIVE

EX: A RABITS' MAIN PREDATOR IS A WOLF

5

COMMENSALISM

A RELATIONSHIP IN WHIHC ONE SPECIES BENEFITS AND THE OTHER IS NOT EFFECTED AT ALL.

6

CO-EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION IN WHICH TWO OR MORE SPECIES INTERACT WOTH EACHOTHER FOR NICHES AND RESOURCES WHICH COULD LEAD TO EACH SPECIES UNDERGOING AN ADAPTATION IN ORDER TO SURVIVE WITH THE OTHER.

7

KEYSTONE SPECIES

A SPECIES THAT PLAYS A MJOR ROLE IN DETERMINING THE STRUCTURE OF ITS ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY

-USUALLY THE SPECIES HAS MANY NICHES INVOLVING MANY OTHER SPECIES
-IF THE SPECIES IS TAKEN OUT IT WILL DRASTICALLY DISRUPT THE ECOSYSTEM (FOOD WEBS)

EX: BEES, SEA OTTERS, RED MANGROVE TREE, SEA STARS, PRARIE DOGS,

8

EUTROPIHC LAKES

A LAKE WITH A...
-LARGE SUPPLY OF NUTRIENTS
-SHALLOW
-WATER MURKY BROWN OR GREEN AND POOR VISIBILITY

9

OLIGOTROPIHHC LAKE

A LAKE WITH A...
-LOW CONCENTRATION OF NUTRIENTS
-SPARCE PLANKTON AND FISH POPULATION
-LITTLE SHORE VEGETATION

10

RULE OF 70

A WAY TO CALCULATE DOUBLING TIME

70/ RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH = HOW MANY YRS.

11

REPLACEMENT LEVEL FERTILITY

THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN A COUPLE MUST BEAR TO REPLACE THEMSELVES

-USUALLY A LITTLE MORE THAN TWO BC SOME CHILDREN DIE BEFORE THERE REPRODUCTIVE YEARS

12

TOTAL FERTILITY RATE

THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF CHILDREN A WOMAN TYPICALLY HAS DURING HER REPRODUCTIVE YEARS

13

IMMIGRATION

WHEN PEOPLE MOVE INTO A COUNTRY COMING FROM ANOTHER
(SOMEONE MOVING TO THE UNITED STATES FROM CHINA)

-WOULD KEEP THE POPULATION GROWING NO MATTER HOW LOW THE FERTILITY RATE OF THAT COUNTRY

14

EMMIGRATION

WHEN PEOPLE MOVE OUT OF A COUNTRY
(YOU MOVING OUT OF THE UNITED SATES TO LIVE IN A DIFFERENT COUNTRY)

15

DEMOGRAPHY

THE STUDY OF SIZE, COMPOSITION, AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF HUMAN POPULATION

16

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSTION

AS COUNTRIES BECOME MORE INDUSTRIALIZED, FIRST THEIR DEATH RATES THEN THIER BIRTH RATES DECLINE

-FOUR STAGES

17

PRE-INDUSTRIAL STAGE (DT)

STAGE #1
-LITTLE POPULATION GROWTH BC OF HARSH CONDITION
-BIRTH AND DEATH RATE HIGH BUT THE POPULATION REMAINS RELATIVLEY LOW
-CHILDREN ARE IMPORTANT FOR LABOR AND SOCIAL SECURITY
-HIGH INFANT MORTALITY, LOW LIFE EXPECTANCY
(EGYPT AND PAKISTAN)

18

TRANSITION STAGE (DT)

STAGE #2
-DEATH RATE DROPS AND BIRTH RATE REMAINS HIGH DUE TO HEALTH CARE IMPROVEMENTS
-CHILDREN NOW UNNECESSARY TO EARN MONEY BUT ARE STILL USED FOR FREE LABOR
-POPUALTION GROWS EXPONETIALLY
-INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY, DECREASED INFANT MORTALITY RATE
(ETHOPIA, BANGLADESH)

19

INDUSTRIAL STAGE (DT)

STAGE #3
-BIRTH RATE DROPS AND APPROACHES DEATH RATE
-SLOWER GROWTH RATE
-CHILDREN ARE NOT NEEDED AT ALL IN THIS STAGE, THEREFORE THERE IS A DECLINE IN HOW ANY CHILDREN ARE BORN PER COUPLE
(INDIA)

20

POST-INDUSTRIAL STAGE (DT)

STAGE #4
-BIRTH RATE DECLINES FURTHER, EQUALING DEATH RATE, HOWEVER POPULATION IS HIGH
-TOO FEW WORKERS TO FILL JOBS
-CITIZENS ARE BETTER EDUCATED AND MORE AFFLUENT (UK, JAPAN, ITALY)

21

WHAT STAGE OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IS THE UNITED STATES CURRENTLY IN?

STAGE #4 POST-INDUSTRIAL

22

THOMAS MALTUS

-BELEIVED THAT THERE WAS CONSTANT PRESSURE TOWARD POPULATION GROWTH BC OF FOOD SUPPLY

AS FOOD SUPPLY RUNS LOW, THERE WILL BE WARS, FAMINE AND DISEASE = INCREASED DEATH RATE

**HAS'NT HAPPENED YET BC ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY ENABLES US TO GROW MORE FOOD AT A FASTER RATE**

23

ECOLOICAL FOOTPRINT

AMT. OF BIOLOGICALLY PRODUCTIVE

24

AGE STRUCTURE DIAGRAM

USED TO STUDY THE NUMBER AND AGES OF PEOPLE IN A COUNTRY
-DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES IN EACH AGE GROUP

25

RAPID GROWTH AGE STRUCTURE DIAGRAM

SHAPED AS A PYRAMID
EX: GUATEMALA, NIGERIA, SAUDI ARBIA

26

SLOW GROWTH AGE STRUCTURE DIAGRAM

SHAPED AS A VERY NARROW PYRAMID
EX: US, AUSTRALIA, CANADA

27

ZERO GROWTH AGE STRUCTURE DIAGRAM

SHAPED AS A SKYSCRAPER (RATIOS ALMOST EVEN BUT STILL HAS A WIDE BOTTOM)
EX: SPAIN, AUSTRIA, GREECE

28

NEGATIVE GROWTH AGE STRUCTURE DIAGRAM

DIAGRAM IS ALMOST STRAIGHT (RATIO SMALLER ON BOTTOM, LARGER ON TOP)
EX: GERMANY,SWEDEN,BULGARIA

29

INDICATORS OF GOOD HEALTH FOR A COUNTRY?

-LOW INFANT MORTALITY RATE
-HIGH LIFE EXPECTANCY

30

FACTORS THAT CAUSE A POPULATION TO INCREASE

-IMPORTANCE OF CHILDREN FOR LABOR
-URBANIZATION
-HIGHER INCOME
-LOW INFANT MORTALITY RATE
-HIGH IMMIGRATION RATES
-LARGE FOOD SUPPLY
-LOW EDUCATION AVAILABILITY

31

FACTORS THAT CAUSE A POPULATION TO DECREASE

-HIGH INFANT MORTALITY RATE
-IMPORTANCE OF CHILDREN FOR LABOR
-HIGH IMMIGRATION RATE
-HIGH DEATH RATE
-HIGH EDUCTION AVAILABILITY
-MORE JOBS AVAILABLE FOR WOMEN

32

HOW TO DETERMINE POPULATION GROWTH

(BIRTHS+IMMIGRATION) - (DEATHS + EMIGRATION)

33

HOW TO DETERMINE THE RATE OF NATURAL INCREASE OF A COUNTRY

(CBR-CDR) / 10

34

R-SELECTED SPECIES

-MANY SMALL OFFSPRING
-LITTLE TO NO PARENTAL CARE
-EARLY REPRODUCTIVE AGE
-MOST OFFSPRING DIE BEFORE REACHING REPRODUCTIVE AGE
-GENERALIST NICHES
-TYPE 3 ON SURVIORSHIP CURVE

EX: COCKROACH, RODENTS, DANDELIONS i

35

K- SELECTED SPECIES

-FEWER LARGER OFFSPRING
-HIGH PARENTAL CARE
-LATER REPRODUCTIVE AGE
-LARGER ADULTS
-MOST OFFSPRING LIVE PAST REPRODUCTIVE STAGE
-LOWER POPULATION GROWTH
-HIGH ABILITY TO COMPETE
-TYPE 1 ON SURVIORSHIP CURVE

EX: ELEPHANT, HUMANS

36

EXAMPLES OF SALT WATER LOCATIONS

SALT MARSHES, OCEANS, SEAS, BAYS, SWAMPS

37

EXAMPLES OF FRESHWATER LOCATIONS

LAKES, POUNDS, RIVERS, STREAMS

38

CORALS?

CORALS ARE ANIMALS THAT CONTAIN PLANTS THAT LIVE INSIDE THEM.

-SOFT AND HARD CORALS
-POLYPS

LIVE IN WATERS WITH THE EXACT TEMPERATURE THEY NEED BC IF EVEN 2 DEGREES COOLER OR WAMRE THE CORAL WILL BECOME BLEACHED AND STRESSED
ALSO SILT COVERS THE CORALS PREVENTING THEM FROM PHOTOSYNTHESIZING

39

CLUMPED SPECIES DISTRIBUTION

SPECIES GROUP TOGETHER IN CERTAIN AREAS
EX: MEERKATS WATCH FRO PREDATORS WITH THIS DISTRIBUTION

40

UNIFORMED SPECIES DISTRIBUTION

TERRITORIAL ORGANISMS DISTRIBUTE IN A ORGANIZED FORMATION
EX: PLANTS THAT EMIT TOXINS

41

RANDOM DISTRIBUTION

SPECIES SETTLE WITHOUT AND REASONING
EX: SEEDS CARRIED BY WIND AND ANIMALS

42

HOW COULD THE GOVERNMENT REDUCE POPULATION GROWTH RATES OF ALL COUNTRIES??

-INFORCE FAMILY PLANNING TO ALL COUPLES
-INFORCE WOMEN TO GET AN EDUCATION AND APPLY FOR JOBS OUTSIDE THE HOUSE

43

DENSITY DEPENDENT FACOTRS?

SIZE OF POPULATION INFLUENCES THE SURVIVAL OF INDIVIDUALS

-DISEASE

44

DENSITY INDEPENDENT FACTORS?

-FLOODS
-HURRICANES
-VOLCANOE EURPUTIONS

45

INTERSPECIFIC SPECIES

INTERACTIONS OCCURRING BETWEEN DIFFERENT SPECIES

46

INTRASPECIFIC SPECIES

INTERACTIONS OCCURRING BETWEEN MEMBERS OF THE SAME SPECIES

47

ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT

AMT. OF BIOLOGICALLY PRODUCTIVE LAND AND WATER NEEDED TO SUPPLY EACH PERSON OR POPULATION WITH THE RESOURCES THEY USE EVERYDAY.

48

INFANT MORATALITY RATE

-IMR IS HIGH IN COUNTRIES WHERE THERE IS LITTLE MEDICINE, HEALTH CARE AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY.

-TO DECREASE IMR THE COUNTRY COULD DEVELOP MORE ADVANCED MEDICINES AND TECHNOLOGIES TO MAKE SURE THE INFANT LIVE UNTIL IT'S REPRODUCTIVE AGE

49

COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION

-NO TWO SPECIES CAN OCCUPY EXACTLY THE SAME NMAIN NICHE IN HABITAT WHERE THERE IS NOT ENOUGH OF A PARTICULAR RESOURCE TO MEET THE NEEDS OF BOTH SPECIES

50

DIEBACK

SHARP REDUCTION IN THE POPULATION OF A SPECIES WHEN ITS NUMBERS EXCEED THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF ITS HABITAT.

51

THEORY OF ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY

- # OF SPECIES FOUND ON AN ISLAND IS DETERMINED BY BALANCE BETWEEN TWO FACTORS:THE IMMIGRATION RATE AND EXTINCTION RATE (NATIVE SPECIES)

-MODEL STATES THAT AT SOME POINT THESE RATES WIL BOTH REACH AN EQUILIBRIUM POIINT THTA DETERMINES THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF OF DIFFERENT SPECIES ON THE ISLAND

52

PREDATOR - PREY RELATIONSHIPS

-PREY IS MUCH MORE ABUNDANT THAN PREDATOR

53

PRIMARAY SUCCESSION

-ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION IN A BARE AREA THAT AHS NEVER BEEN OCCUPIED BY A COMMUNITY OF ORGANISMS

-PIONEER SPECIES MOVE IN LIKE MOSSES AND LICHENS
(BEGINING STAGES)

54

SECONDARY SUCCESSION

-ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION IN AN AREA IN WHICH NATURAL VEGETATION HAS BEEN REMOVED OR DESTROYED BUT THE SOIL AND LEFTOVER NUTRIENTS STAY

55

TOP 3 MOST POPULOUS COUNTRIES

1.CHINA
2.INDIA
3.US