Flashcards in Chapters 7-8: Monoclonal antibodies and plant disease Deck (22):
What is the difference between a bacteriocidal and a bacteriostatic antibiotic?
Bacteriocidal antibiotics kill bacteria by dissolving their cell walls, bacteriostatic antibiotics prevent bacteria from growing
How do plant diseases affect humans?
TMV/Rice blast/nematode worms destroy crops, which can lead to mass starvation
What happens if a plant doesn't have enough magnesium ions?
They can't produce chlorophyll (which contains magnesium), so their leaves turn yellow and they suffer from stunted growth due to the fact that they can't photosynthesise
What happens if a plant doesn't have enough nitrate ions?
It can't make protein and suffers from stunted growth
What are some symptoms of plant infection?
Stunted growth, spots, rotting, malformation, discolouration, pests
How do plants prevent infection?
Thick cell walls and waxy cuticles make viral infection of cells harder, bark is dead and acts as skin
How do plants fight off infections?
Mint and other plants synthesise their own antibacterial compounds, which are now used as human antiseptics
How do plants prevent being eaten?
(Poison ivy, deadly nightshade) Producing poisonous chemicals such as digitalis
Spines and thorns
Folding leaves when touched to make grasshoppers fall off
Spots that look like butterfly eggs (to discourage butterflies from laying their eggs there)
What is the first stage of drug development?
Computer modelling (seeing how it might interact with the body and with other chemicals)
What is the second stage of drug development?
Testing on animals or tissues grown in petri dishes
What is the third stage of drug development?
Testing on humans to identify safe dosages, testing efficacy on sick patients (how well it works), given to a large number of patients to finalise safe doses and efficacy
What is a double blind trial?
A trial where both the doctor and the patient do not know who has been given the trial and who has been given the placebo. This eliminates the placebo effect
How does antibiotic resistance work?
Antibiotics kill all the normal bacteria, leaving behind the resistant ones, which go on to reproduce. Always finish the full course of antibiotics
What are monoclonal antibodies?
Antibodies that are clones of other antibodies, created in laboratories.
How are monoclonal antibodies produced?
An antigen is injected into a mouse. The mouse's immune response begins and after a few days its white blood cells produce antibodies specific to the injected antigen. Spleen cells are then collected from the mouse, and fused with cancerous white blood cells (myeloma cells) to form hybridoma cells. These cells are placed in a medium that only allows hybridoma cells to survive. Since the hybridoma cells are cancerous, they keep dividing and producing antibodies indefinitely when grown in culture. The antibodies are isolated by centrifugation, filtration and chromatography
What does the word "monoclonal" mean?
Identical clones of one
How do pregnancy tests work?
Monoclonal antibodies to HCG (a hormone present in the urine of pregnant women) are stuck to the ends of a small strip of paper which a woman urinates onto. When HCG binds to these antibodies, they change colour, creating a blue line on the pregnancy test device
What is the function of the spleen?
To produce and destroy red blood cells
How are monoclonal antibodies used for diagnostics?
They are used to detect chlamydia and AIDS. They can also be used to test for hormones in the blood. The mechanism is similar to what happens in pregnancy tests, but the antibodies emit UV light instead of blue light
How are monoclonal antibodies used to treat diseases?
Monoclonal antibodies can help the immune system attack cancerous cells, stop the cells dividing, or deliver toxic drugs or radiation to them
What is tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)?
A virus that infects tobacco and tomato plants, turns leaves black and reduces the plant's ability to photosynthesise. It can survive in soil. Pseudomonas syringae does the same thing, but also increase the susceptibility to frost damage. Rose black spot does the same thing but affects roses instead