Chapters 8, 9, 10, & 11 book questions Flashcards Preview

Biology 1406 > Chapters 8, 9, 10, & 11 book questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 8, 9, 10, & 11 book questions Deck (38):
1

Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Catabolism is to anabolism as _______ is to _______.

exergonic; endergonic

2

Most cells cannot harness heat to perform work because

temperature is usually uniform throughout a cell

3

Which of the following metabolic processes can occur without a net influx of energy from some other process?

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

4

If an enzyme in solution is saturated with substrate, the most effective way to obtain a faster yield of products is to

add more of the enzyme

5

Some bacteria are metabolically active in hot springs because

their enzymes have high optimal temperatures

6

If an enzyme is added to a solution where its substrate and product are in equilibrium, what will occur?

Nothing; the reaction will stay at equilibrium

7

The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the

H+ concentrations across the membrane holding ATP synthase

8

Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?

glycolysis

9

In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions

provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient

10

The final electron accepter of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is

oxygen

11

What is the oxidizing agent in the following reaction?
pyruvate + NADH + H+ ---> Lactate + NAD+

pyruvate

12

When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occur?

the pH of the matrix increases

13

Most CO2 from catabolism is released during

the citric acid cycle

14

Enzymes are described as catalysts, which means that they

increase the rate of the reaction without being consumed by the reaction

15

The reduced form of the electron acceptor in glycolysis is

NADH

16

As ATP levels accumulate, negative feedback causes cellular respiration to slow down. What is the name of the enzyme that is acted on by ATP in this negative feedback look?

phosphofructokinase

17

Chemical energy is a type of

potential energy

18

Light energy is a type of

kinetic energy

19

The electrons stripped from glucose in cellular respiration end up in which compound?

water

20

In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of

ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

21

The competitive inhibitor competes with the substrate for the _________ on the enzyme.

active site

22

The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the calvin cycle with

ATP and NADPH

23

Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?

H2O ---> NADPH ---> Calvin Cycle

24

How is photosynthesis similar in C4 plants and CAM plants?

In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially

25

Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?

Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic

26

Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin cycle?

release of oxygen

27

In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to

oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration

28

Which process is most directly driven by light energy?

removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules

29

Phosphorylation cascades involving a series of protein kinases are useful for cellular signal transduction because

they amplify the original signal manyfold

30

Binding of a signaling molecule to which type of receptor leads directly to a change in the distribution of ions on opposite sides of the membrane?

ligand-gated ion channel

31

The activation of receptor tyrosine kinases is characterized by

dimerization and phosphorylation

32

Lipid-soluble signaling molecules, such as testosterone, cross the membranes of all cells but affect only target cells because

intracellular receptors are present only in target cells

33

Consider this pathway:
epinephrine ---> G protein-coupled receptor ---> G protein ---> adenylyl cyclase ---> cAMP.
Identify the second messenger.

cAMP

34

Apoptosis involves

-fragmentation of the DNA
-cell-signaling pathways
-activation of cellular enzymes
-digestion of cellular contents by scavenger cells

35

Apoptosis does not involve

lysis of the cell

36

Which observation suggested to Sutherland the involvement of a second messenger in epinephrine's effect on liver cells?

Glycogen breakdown was observed only when epinephrine was administered to intact cells

37

Protein phosphorylation is commonly involved with all of the following EXCEPT

activation of G protein-coupled receptors

38

Protein phosphorylation is commonly involved with

-regulation of transcription by extracellular signaling molecules
-enzyme activation
-activation of receptor tyrosine kinases
-activation of protein kinase molecules