Flashcards in Chapters 9 & 10 Tests of Intelligence Deck (75):
A tests appeal is based on 7 factors:
* Theory on which the test is based
* Ease with which test administered
* Ease of scoring
* Ease of results interpretation
* Adequcy and appropriateness of norms
* Acceptability of reliability and validity indices
* Utility interms of costs versus benefit.
Thurstone's claim to fame:
Lois Thurstone conceived intelligence test based on theory... PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES test. (1938)
Consisted of separate tests each designed to measure one PMA.
Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities Test consisted of 7 abilities. What were they?
1. verbal meaning
2. perceptual speed
4. number facility
5. rote memory
6. word fluency
7. spatial relations
Binet's test developed through necessity.
What was it's basis?
Binet and Theodore Simon created the world's first formal test of intelligence in 1905.
Aim: to develop a screen for developmentally disabled Paris school children.
1912: Modified version extended the range to 2 year-olds.
Lewis Madison Terman
extended the Binet-Simon Intelligence test.
What was it?
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
Based on research... methodological approach... included normative studies.
The Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales introduced three main factors:
1. Organized & detailed scoring and administration instructions
2. Employed the concept of IQ
3. Introduced the concept of an alternate Item to be used only under certain conditions.
Wha is an alternate item?
An alternate item mght be used if a regular item had not beenadministered properly by the examiner.
Stanford-Binet Test Revision in 1960 had significant changes.
Only a single form test labelled L-M
No new items added
Major innoveation was the use of the deviation IQ tables in place of ratio tables (that were based on mental age).
What did the ratio IQ show?
The ratio IQ is the ratio of the test taker's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 to eliminate decimals.
The third edition of the SB, applied the deviation IQ!!
What is the Deviation IQ?
The deviation IQ (Intelligence Quotient) reflects a comparison of the performance of the individual with the performance of others the same age in the standardization sample.
Test performance is converted into a standard score with a mean of 100 and a SD of 16.
Sternberg: What is Intelligence?
The ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.
Definition of IQ?
Intelligence is the capacity to learn and use the skills that are required for successful adaptation to the demands of one's cultural environment.
History of Intelligence Research
Sir Francis Galton:
Believed 'genius' ran in families- attempted to demonstrate this
History of Intelligence Research
Modern Intelligence testing began (Binet-Simon test).
Demonstrate ability in school children.
History of Intelligence Research
General intelligence & specific factors make up intelligence.
History of Intelligence Research
His Stanford-Binet test became the "gold standard' IQ test.
History of Intelligence
Proposed the Wechser Adult Intelligence Scale. Still in use today.
THEORIES of Intelligence
Is Intelligence a unitary function?
Composite of several independent cognitive abilities?
Based on measurement alone, it is difficult to determine underlying determinant... need to look at this interms of behaviour.
We do not know what is underpinnining this behaviour.
History of Intelligence
Darwin generated and proposed the technique of correlation.
* Children's Testing
- The Binet-Simon test
- Generation of IQ
**Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
- Verbal (GK, Vocab, Comprehension, Arithmetic)
- Performance (Object Assembly, Picture Completion)
**Cattell's - Culture Fair Test - Non Verbal IQ
* Progressive matrices
**Tests of Intelligence
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAISIV latest)
PATH OF PROGRESS TESTS
1905 - single 'g'
* Child-aged... should be able to:
3 years - name pictures of objects; repeat lists of 2 words/digits
4 years - Discriminate shapes; repeat 10 word sentence; count up to 4
6 years - State difference between bird & dog; count up to 9; solve analogies
9 years - Solve verbal problems; repeat 4 digits in reverse
12 years- Repeat 5 words in reverse; define words such as muzzle or collar.
3 factors based children's test on:
He labelled individuals- e.g. moron, idiot, etc..
1986 introduced further abilities.
1. Verbal reasoning
2. Visual reasoning
3. Quantitative resoning
4. Short-term memory
Five main factors largely based on the CHC model:
1. Fluid reasoning
3. Quantitative reasoning
4. Visual-spatial reasoning
5. Working memory
Parallel Test forms
Make sure that 2 or more versions of the same test preoduced- where or each form the means and variances of observed test scores are equal.
THE EMERGENCE OF IQ
William Stern produced IQ
Mental age divided by chronological age X100
Developed the MEASURE of intelligence quotient, not just intelligence. IQ
Problem: 28 year-old compared to a 30 year-old?
Stanford -Binet Became known as the
Stanford-Binet Test. 1916 edition.
Have a look at the progression. :)
1908- first developed (Binet-Simon)
1916- SB-1 (first Stanford-Binet test) Targeted for chn to 19yrs.
1937- SB-2 extended to 22years, 10months.
Standardization and scoring improved.
Deviation IQ introduced .. normal distribution. Largely verbal abilities.
Incorporated Gf, Gc, STM
Verbal resoning + others
Standard deviation 1 point is 15 IQ points.
Book 1 - routing...which finds out the level of where to strt the child.
Books 2 & 3
- fluid reasoning (e.g. how are summer and winter alike)
- quantitative reasoning
- visual processing pattens and shapes
- working memory e.g. sentences
Interpretation Scale of Intelligence
145-160 Very Gifted
110-119 High Average
80-89 Low Average
70-79 Borederline Impaired
55-69 Mildly Impaired
40-54 Moderately Impaired
WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE
*based on a points scale NOT age scale
* operates on deviation IQ
* WAIS, WAIR-R, & WAIS-III
Verbal & performance scale organised with ascending difficulty
WASI-IV (2003) changed all this. Current edition!!
Has 10 main score subsets & 5 supplemental
The full scale IQ composite scores
10 core subsets: ( plus 5 supplemental)
1. Block design
3. Digit span
4. Matrix resonng
7. Symbol search
8. Visual puzzles
5 supplemental sets
Used in case need clinical follow-up to provide urther profile/picture.
Set verbal instructions given.
1. Letter-number sequencing
2. Figure Weights
5. Picture Completion
WAIS Block design
What sort of task?
Block design is a perceptual reasoning task.
e.g. If a is similar to b
WAIS Digit Span
e.g. 6 letters to read back to you.
WAIS Matrix Reasoning
Matrix of figures and fill in missing block
Arithematic - Working Memory
WAIS Symbol Search
Symbol search - processing speed & bit of working memory
WAIS Visual Puzzles
Puzzles Perceptual reasoning
Coding Processing speed
What happened in regard to the floor and ceiling effects with WAIS-IV?
WAIS IV increased the floor and ceiling effects so the range of scores is better.
Was 45 - NOW 40
Was 155- NOW 160.
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN (WICS-IV)
What are the 3 main characteristics?
1. More focus on the CHC model of intelligence
2. Outcomes same as WAIS (FSIQ;4 subscores)
3. Standardisation based on 2,200 6-16year-olds - Stratified for gender and race.
Which test for childen?
*Year of development - WISC-IV & SB-5 2003
* Norming - WISC-IV included parent education
* SB5 included socioeconomic status
* Short forms SB5 has short forms
* Both based on CHC model
* Comparability of scores- 0.9 plus both
The WPPSI III (2002)
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
Extended the range:
2 years 6 months - 7 years 3 months.
3 Composite Scores Obtained:
1. Verbal IQ
2. Performance IQ
3. Full Scale IQ
Test developers interested in enhancing 2 further measures:
1. Fluid reasoning- Matrix reasoning, picture concepts & word reasoning.
2. Processing speed - coding and symbol search.
Issues with the validity of short forms include:
1. Reducing the number of items in a test typically reduces the test's reliability and validity.
2. Therefore, decisions mde on the basis of data derived from administrations of a test's short form must, in general, be made with caution.
Watkins (1986) concluded that short forms may only be used for screening purposes, and not to make placement or educational decisions.
The Weschsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)
Satisfactory psychometric soundness.
Two subtest form
Takes about 15 minutes to administer... compared to 60 mins long form.
What is the Army Alpha Test?
Instrument developed in 2 weeks to administer to military personnel.
Tets administered to army recruits who could read. (1917).
It contained tasks such as general information questions, analogies, and scrambled sentences to reassemble.
What is the Army Beta Test?
Army Beta Test designed for administration to foreign bor recruits with poor knowledge of English or to illiterate recruits.
Tasks: mazes, coding & picture completion.
World War II
Army General Classification Test
Administered by an assessment unit Office of Strategic Services (OSS)... measured the abilities of more than 12 million recruits.
What is a screening tool?
A screening tool is an instrumnet or procedure used to identify a particular trait or constellation of traits at a gross or imprecise level. Data derived may then may lend to deeper assessments.
Give some examples of Group tests
Are administered in the military e.g. the Armed Services VocationalAptitude Battery (ASVB).
AND in schools:
CULTURE FAIR TEST
Test of Fluid Intelligence
* Series-what comes next?
* Classification- which 2 are the odd ones out?
* Matrices- which shape is missing?
* Conditions- which shape can be placed so it has the same location rules as the dot in the target picture?
Raven's Progressive Matrices
Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory
EQ-I comprises 133 items
e.g. I am in touch with my emotions
I am unable to express my ideas to others
Not suitable for children
Relates to potential for performance, rather than performance
15 factorial components
The 15 Factorial Components of EQ-I
Emotional Intelligence Quotient Inventory
* Emotional self-awareness
* Social responsibility
* Interpersonal Relationships
* Reality Testing
* Problem Solving
* Stress Tolerance
* Impulse Control
WHAT ASPECTS NEED TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN CHOOSING THE RIGHT INTELLIGENCE TEST?
2. Reliability and Validity
Essential good psychometric propoerties
4. What do you want to achieve?
5. Gold standards.
What does Epigenetic mean?
Epigenetic status has recently been defined as “a stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence.” Such epigenetic ‘heritability’ may occur through either mitosis or meiosis and therefore has the potential to explain at least part of the high heritability of intelligence. Epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in many syndromes associated with mental impairment; e.g. Autism.
The role of epigenetics in human complex traits such as intelligence is difficult to study for a number of reasons. Epigenetic status can be influenced by factors such as diet and alcohol. Therefore, depending on the epigenetic mark of interest, there is a danger of reverse causality, where lifestyle choices linked to intelligence may influence epigenetic status.
The Factor Analytic Approach
Relies on Factor Analysis: ststistical techniques to determine the underlying relationships b/n sets of variables/test scores.
General Assumption:IQ Scores are stable
Schmidt & Hunter (1998) Mental ability strongest predictor of work success
Problem of cause and effect
Some factor may link specific abilities.
Spearman's Two Factor theory "g"
Introduced statistical techniques that allowed testing of different theories.
General & Specific Theory of inteligence.
Intelligence= g + (s+e)
Spearman's Two Factor Theory
General + Specific
Intelligence = g + (s+e)
g - Portion of variance ALL tets have in common
s - Portion of vaiance accounted for by specific components
e- Portion of variance accounted for by error components
Underlying ability plus tests.
THE FACTOR ANALYTICAL APPROACH
What is "g"?
"g" represents the portion of variance that all intelligence tests have in common AND the remaining portions of the variance being accounted for either by specific components (s), orby error components (e) of this general factor.
Tests highly saturated with "g"
Are tests that exhibit high positive correlations with other intelligence tests.
The greater the magnitude of "g" in a test of intelligence, the better the test thought to predict overall intelligence.
Spearman: Tests low in "g"
Tests with low or moderate correlations with other intelligence tests were viewed as possible measures of specific factors (e.g. visual or motor ability).
Spearman's "g" energy:
Spearman conceived "g" factor as type of general electrochemical mental energy available to the brain for problem solving.
ALSO associated with facility in thinking of own experience, making observations & extracting principles.
Abstract resoning problems - the best measures of 'g' in formal tests. Greater 'g' greater overall Intelligence.
FLUID Intelligence - Cattell
(Gf) In Cattell's two-factor theory, nonverbal abilities that are relatively less dependent on culture and formal instruction = fluid intelligence.
e.g. ability to think logically, innovative & novel capacities.
CRYSTALIZED Intelligence - Cattell
(Gc) Crystallized abilities include acquired skills and knowledge that are dependent on exposure to a partcular culture as well as formal & informal education. (e.g. vocabulary)
ALSO retrieval of info & application of general knowledge.
Carroll - Three-Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities
Hierarchical model: lower abilities reliant on higher order ones.
Top Stratum = "g" General Intelligence
Second Stratum = 8 abilities/processes:
Fluid int (Gf)
General Memory & Learning (Y)
Broad Visual perception (V)
Broad Auditory Perception (U)
Broad RetrievalCapacity (R)
Broad Cognitive Speediness (S)
Processing/decision speed (T)
Third Stratum = Narrow: Several Level Factors or speed factors. Individual Specific Abilities.p.285
Cattell and Horn and Carroll
Kevin S. Mc Grew (1997)
CHC Model of Cognitive Abilities
10 Broad stratum abilites and over 70 narrow stratum abilities.
Each broad stratum ability subsuming 2 or more narrow-stratum abilities.
* Fluid Intelligence (Gf)
* Crystallized Int (Gc)
* Quantitative Knowledge (GQ)
* Reading/Writing (Grw)
* Short-term Memory (Gsm)
* Visual Processing (Gv)
* Auditory Processing (Ga)
* Long-term storage & retrieval (Glr)
* Processing speed (Gs)
* Decision/reaction time/speed (Gt)
Cattell & Horn Model
Two major types of cognitive abilities
* Flud (Gf) Vs crystallized (Gc) Intelligence
Fluid intelligence peaks around early adulthood.
* Crystallized Intelligence steadily inclines and peaksaround mid 60's. More about acquired knowledge and experience.