Flashcards in Charles I Deck (14):
What was Charles's character like?
Had a stammer, was shy and insecure - close to Buckingham. Wouldn't explain his decisions to Parliament. Close to Henrietta Maria.
What were the aims of Charles?
Maintain law and order. Provide religious leadership. Defend his kingdoms.
What were Charles's beliefs about Royal Authority?
Believed in the Divine Right of Kings - acted upon this belief. Charles thought he was above the law. The Monarch was appointed by God. Wouldn't compromise.
What was Charles's court like?
Court centre of political and social life - celebration of the monarchy. Masques - what he imagined his role as king as. Court was Charles's supporters. Henrietta Maria was a Catholic and allowed to practise - gained political influence.
Who were Charles's advisors and waht problems did they cause?
Buckingham - rose to power quickly, hated by Parliament and the court and they attempted to impeach him he also made poor foreign policy decisions. Charles's court was full of Catholics.
What was Tonnage and Poundage and why did it cause conflict?
It was money meant to be granted to Charles but Parliament only granted it for a year as they didn't trust Buckingham. Charles regarded it as an attack on him. Hindered Charles's ability to rule.
What was the Forced Loan (1626) and what were the issues?
Needed funds for war so decided to collect by royal prerogative. Collected publicly. Substantial opposition. The Five Knights Cae (1627) - confronted Charles with the habeas corpus. Raised more than 4 Parliamentary subsidies.
What caused connflict over the Church?
Parliament and most of the country were Protestant. Charles was Arminian, believed in heirachy and order, also had a Catholic wife - moving towards Catholicism.
What was the York House Conference (1627) ?
By Buckingham. Intended to persuade Charles away from anti-calvinism. It failed.
What were the issues concerning foreign policies?
1. Cadiz Expedition (1625) - Used Queens dowry, soldiers got drunk and couldn't fight
2. La Rochelle (1627) - Laid seige on St Martin, after months they attacked but their ladders were too short
Humiliating and expensive failures - blamed on Buckingham..
Who were the key figures of Parliamentary opposition?
John Pym. Edward Coke. Denzil Holles.
What was the Petition of Right (1628) ?
Asked the King to confirm 4 ancient liberties. 1 - only taxed by Parliament. 2 - trials. 3 - Billeting illegal. 4 - Martial law on civillians illegal.
What was the impact of Buckingham's assassination?
August 1628 - Buckingham stabbed by John Felton. Charles held Parliament responsible. Shocked by the extent of public celebration. Left lots of vacant titles.