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Flashcards in Chem Review Deck (60):
1

The smallest unit of matter that still retains properties of an element.

Atom

2

Three types of subatomic particles?

Protons
Neutrons
Electrons

3

These two are packed in atomic nucleus.

Proton
Neutron

4

These occupy outer shells.

Electron

5

Protons have a __ charge

+

6

Electrons have a __ charge

-

7

Neutrons have a __ charge

Neutral

8

23
NA
11

Atomic number?

11

9

Atomic number represents:

Number of protons
Number of electrons in neutral atom

10

Mass number?
23
NA
11

23

11

Mass number represents?

Number of Protons + Neutrons

12

Atomic mass =

Average weight of element (Daltons)

13

To calculate number of neutrons we:

Mass number - Atomic Number

14

Two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond = a...

Molecule -

15

How many electrons in inner most shell?

TWO maximum

16

How many in each shell after?

8

17

The outermost shell is called the..

Valence Shell

18

The valence shell contains the...

Valence electrons.

19

If an element has a full valence shell they are called...

Chemically unreactive

20

If the valence shell isn't full...

Chemically reactive

21

A sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms is called:

A covalent bond

22

The bonding capacity of an atom is called it's _____

Valence

23

Valence usually equals...

Number of unpaired electrons needed to complete atom's valence shell.

24

When two atoms bond by sharing two pairs of valence electrons?

Double bond

25

When two atoms bond by sharing only one pair of valence electrons?

Single bond

26

The attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond is called:

Electronegativity

27

So, if an atom is more electronegative:

More strongly it pulls shared electrons towards itself.

28

If two atoms have the same electronegativity they will form a...

Nonpolar covalent bond.

29

When one atom bonds to a more electronegative atom they will form a...

Polar covalent bond

30

Which is one of the most highly electronegative?

Oxygen!

31

When two atoms are so unequal in their attraction for valence electrons, that the more electronegative steals an electron from it's partner...

Ionic bond

32

When an atom becomes charged we call it an.

Ion

33

When an atom has a positive charge it is called...

Cation

34

When an atom has a negative charge it's called an...

Anion

35

When an atom is imbalanced between protons and electrons:

More protons - postively charged
More electrons - negatively charged
(IONS)

36

The making and breaking of chemical bonds leading to changes in the composition of matter...

Chemical Reactions

37

The starting materials in a chem reaxn are called:

Reactants

38

The end result of chem reaxn...

Products

39

The coefficient is:

The number in front of the molecule

40

The coefficients indicate the:

Number of molecules involved

41

All atoms of reactants must be:

Accounted for in the products

42

The point at which reactions offset eachother exactly is called:

Chemical Equilibrium

43

An attraction between a hydrogen atom carrying a partial positive charge and an electronegative atom:

Hydrogen Bond

44

H+ is a

Hydrogen Ion (Positive)

45

OH-

Hydroxide ion (Negatively charged)

46

A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution..

Acid

47

Substance that decreases hydrogen ion concentration of a solution...

Base

48

In a neutral solution:

H+ = OH-

49

In an acidic solution:

H+>OH-

50

In a basic solution:

H+

51

As H+ increases:

PH decreases

52

PH 14:

Way less H+ than OH- (Oven cleaner, bleach)

53

PH: 0:

Way more H+ than OH- (Battery acid, lemon juice)

54

Neutral PH:

7

55

A substance which minimizes changes in concentrations of H+ and OH- is called a:

Buffer

56

Example of a buffer?

H2CO3 - formed when CO2 reacts with water in blood plasma

57

Most other buffers are also:

Acid-Base Pairs

58

The number of moles of solute per liter of solution:

Molarity

59

Molecular mass equals...

The sum of masses of all atoms in a molecule

60

Instead we use:

Avogadro's number 6.02*10(23)