Chemical Signalling Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemical Signalling Deck (18):
1

Name one form of intercellular communication?

Direct contact - through the gap junction
First Messengers
Cell receptors

2

How is intercellular communication controlled?

By messenger molecules secreted from the ECF.

3

Name the four main first messenger molecules?

Endocrine
Paracrine
Autocrine
Neural Signalling

4

What is an endocrine first messenger?

A chemical signal (hormone) that travels in the blood stream

5

What is the paracrine first messenger?

The message is released by a cell that is in close proximity to the target cell i.e blood vessel cell communicating with smooth muscle

6

What is the autocrine first messenger?

The messenger binds to the cells OWN receptors!

7

What is neural signalling first messenger?

They are neurotransmitters that are release to aid in the communication of neurons

8

What are the 2 ways in which a messenger can interact with a cell?

It can bind to an external receptor or it can be absorbed and dock on intracellular receptors.

9

What is another word for the messenger

Agonists.

10

What is the name given to the functional response of an receptor activated cell?

Signal Transduction

11

Will the same neurotransmitter always produce the same response?

No. It depends which functional cell it gets accepted by which will depend on its response. I.e adrenaline will react differently with a cardiac cell over a skeletal cell.

12

What are the four different types of receptors?

Enzyme linked
Channel Linked
G-Protein Linked
Intracellular receptors

13

What are the two different types of Ion Channels?

Voltage gated and Ligand gated

14

How do Voltage gated channels work?

They open based on the membrane potential of the cell

15

How do Ligand gated channels open?

The neurotransmitter attaches to the side of the Ligand ion channel which opens it.

16

How to G-Protein receptors work?

1) Neurotransmitter docks in the receptor
2) G-Protein the becomes activated
3)GDP changes to GTP
4) G-Protein then heads over to the channel or enzyme
5) The enzyme releases the second messanger

17

What are second messengers?

They are something that has been activated due to a receptor activating a previous receptor which in turn has then activated it and example is cAMP

18

Are second messengers always excitatory?

No, as well as speeding things up they can slow things down, such as heart rate ect!