Flashcards in Chemistry 100 Deck (92):
What are atoms composed of?
Protons, neutrons, and electrons
Where are protons located?
In the nucleas
Where are neutrons located?
In the nucleas
Where are electrons located?
Outside the nucleas
What is the relative charge of a proton?
What is the relative charge of a neutron?
What is the relative charge of an electron?
What does the atomic number (Z) represent?
The number of protons in the nucleas of an element
What is chemistry?
The study of matter
What is matter?
Matter is composed of particles and is anything that have volume or mass
What is energy?
The capacity to do work or conduct heat
What are pure substances?
They are uniform
What is a compound?
It has 2 or more elements
What are the diatomic elements?
What is a mixture?
A mixture consists of 2 or more pure substances
What is a homogeneous mixture?
A mixture that is uniform
Ex: Hot Chocolate
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
A mixture that has parts that you can see
What are the states of matter?
What are the characteristics of solid matter?
It has set volume and shape
What are the characteristics of liquid matter?
It does not have set shape but does have set volume
What are the characteristics of gas matter?
It has no set volume or shape
What are the 4 physical properties?
What is the equation for density?
What is the density of water?
What is intensive property?
It is independent of the state of matter
What is extensive property?
It is dependent of the state of matter
What is chemical property?
How an element reacts and interacts
What is deposition?
Going from the gas state to the solid state
What is sublimination?
Going from the solid state to the gas state
What is condensation?
Going from the gas state to the liquid state
What is vaporization?
Going from the liquid state to the gas state
What is melting?
Going from the solid state to the liquid state
What is freezing?
The liquid state changing to the solid state
Where are alkali metals located on the periodic table?
Group A1 except Hydrogen
Where are the alkaline earth metals located?
What is a chemical change?
When 2 or more substances combine to form a new substance. This is irreversible.
Where are the halogens located?
Where are the noble gases located?
Where are the transition metals?
All the B groups
Where are the Lathanides located?
Where are the Actinides located?
Where are the subatomic particles located?
In the nucleas
What is Dalton’s atomic theory?
Matter cannot be created or destroyed
Gold foil experiment to show space in an atom
What is the mass of an electron?
9.1094 x 10^-24 amu
What is the mass of a proton?
1.6726 x 10^-24 amu
What is the mass of a neutron?
1.6749 x 10^-24 amu
What is Atomic charge?
Atomic charge in typically zero if there are the same number or protons and neutrons
What is nuclear charge?
The charge of a nucleas and is dependent on whether there are more electrons or more protons
What is an isotope?
Two or more forms of the same element that have differing number of neutrons and have differing mass
What is an ion?
A charge atom
What is an anion?
When an atom gains electrons and thus has a negative charge
What is a cation?
When an atom loses electrons and thus has a negative charge
What is energy’s relationship to frequency?
Energy is directly related to frequency
Energy’s relationship to wavelength?
Energy is inversely related to wavelength
What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency?
Wavelength is inversely related to frequency
c=speed of light
What is the expression for lights energy?
What is the color spectrum in relation to energy?
Very Icky Boots Get Yucky On Rugs
Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red
Highest —> Lowest
What is the ground state?
when an electron is not excited
What is the excited state?
When an electron absorbs energy
When does light absorption happen?
When an electron is being excited
When does light emission happen?
When an electron is going back to the ground state
What are the names of the 4 orbitals?
How many sub levels are in the S orbital?
How many sub levels are in the P orbital?
How many sub levels are in the D orbital?
How many sub levels are in the F orbital?
How many electrons are in each orbital sub level?
Give an example of electron configuration
1s^2 2s^2 2p^2
Give an example of a noble gas core or abbreviated electron configuration
What is light?
a form of energy called electromagnetic radiation
What is the speed of light (c)?
3.0 x 10^8 m/s
What is the Bohr model?
a model where electrons orbit the nuclear radially as the planets orbit the sun. each orbit is given an integer value of n
How is energy dispersed in the Bohr model?
N=1 to N=2 take significantly more energy than any other jump. The jumps take less energy as they move up
What is Aufbau's Principle?
electrons fill orbitals starting with the lowest energy orbitals
What is the Pauli exclusion principle?
a maximum of two electrons can occupy each orbital and they must have opposite spin
Represented with arrows pointing up and down
What is Hund's rule?
electrons are distributed into orbitals of identical energy (same sublevel) in such a way as to give the maximum number of unpaired electrons
any species (atom and/or ion) that has the same electron configuration
in general atoms gain or lose electrons to become isoelectronic with its nearest noble gas
What is an ionic compound?
a compound where ions are held together by electrostatic forces
ionic bonding is present
what are molecular compounds?
a compound where atoms are held together by covalent bonds
the electrons are shared
What is the octet rule?
in a lewis dot structure, each element needs to have a full octet
What are resonance structures?
When there are multiple correct lewis dot structures for a compound
What are the three parent structures for molecular shape?
What is the degree angle for a linear structure?
what is the degree angle for a trigonal planar structure?
what is the degree angle for a tetrahedral structure?
What is a structure called when a linear parent structure has a lone pair?
What is a structure called when a trigonal planar structure has a lone pair?
Is it possible to a molecular compound to have more than one central atom?
What molecules have london dispersion forces
what molecules have dipole dipole forces?