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Flashcards in Chemistry 100 Deck (92):
1

What are atoms composed of?

Protons, neutrons, and electrons

2

Where are protons located?

In the nucleas

3

Where are neutrons located?

In the nucleas

4

Where are electrons located?

Outside the nucleas

5

What is the relative charge of a proton?

+1

6

What is the relative charge of a neutron?

0

7

What is the relative charge of an electron?

-1

8

What does the atomic number (Z) represent?

The number of protons in the nucleas of an element

9

What is chemistry?

The study of matter

10

What is matter?

Matter is composed of particles and is anything that have volume or mass

11

What is energy?

The capacity to do work or conduct heat

12

What are pure substances?

They are uniform
Ex: H2

13

What is a compound?

It has 2 or more elements
Ex: H2O

14

What are the diatomic elements?

H,N,O,F,Cl,Br, I

15

What is a mixture?

A mixture consists of 2 or more pure substances

16

What is a homogeneous mixture?

A mixture that is uniform
Ex: Hot Chocolate

17

What is a heterogeneous mixture?

A mixture that has parts that you can see
Ex: Salad

18

What are the states of matter?

1. Solid
2. Liquid
3. Gas

19

What are the characteristics of solid matter?

It has set volume and shape

20

What are the characteristics of liquid matter?

It does not have set shape but does have set volume

21

What are the characteristics of gas matter?

It has no set volume or shape

22

What are the 4 physical properties?

1. Mass
2. Temperature
3. Volume
4. Density

23

What is the equation for density?

Mass/Volume

24

What is the density of water?

1 g/ml

25

What is intensive property?

It is independent of the state of matter

26

What is extensive property?

It is dependent of the state of matter

27

What is chemical property?

How an element reacts and interacts

28

What is deposition?

Going from the gas state to the solid state

29

What is sublimination?

Going from the solid state to the gas state

30

What is condensation?

Going from the gas state to the liquid state

31

What is vaporization?

Going from the liquid state to the gas state

32

What is melting?

Going from the solid state to the liquid state

33

What is freezing?

The liquid state changing to the solid state

34

Where are alkali metals located on the periodic table?

Group A1 except Hydrogen

35

Where are the alkaline earth metals located?

Group 2A

36

What is a chemical change?

When 2 or more substances combine to form a new substance. This is irreversible.

37

Where are the halogens located?

Group 7A

38

Where are the noble gases located?

Group 8A

39

Where are the transition metals?

All the B groups

40

Where are the Lathanides located?

Atomic# 51-71

41

Where are the Actinides located?

Atomic #89-103

42

Where are the subatomic particles located?

In the nucleas

43

What is Dalton’s atomic theory?

Matter cannot be created or destroyed

44

Rutherford’s experiment

Gold foil experiment to show space in an atom

45

What is the mass of an electron?

9.1094 x 10^-24 amu

46

What is the mass of a proton?

1.6726 x 10^-24 amu

47

What is the mass of a neutron?

1.6749 x 10^-24 amu

48

What is Atomic charge?

Atomic charge in typically zero if there are the same number or protons and neutrons

49

What is nuclear charge?

The charge of a nucleas and is dependent on whether there are more electrons or more protons

50

What is an isotope?

Two or more forms of the same element that have differing number of neutrons and have differing mass

51

What is an ion?

A charge atom

52

What is an anion?

When an atom gains electrons and thus has a negative charge

53

What is a cation?

When an atom loses electrons and thus has a negative charge

54

What is energy’s relationship to frequency?

Energy is directly related to frequency

55

Energy’s relationship to wavelength?

Energy is inversely related to wavelength

56

What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency?

Wavelength is inversely related to frequency

hv=c
h=wavelength
v=frequency
c=speed of light

57

What is the expression for lights energy?

E=hv

58

What is the color spectrum in relation to energy?

Very Icky Boots Get Yucky On Rugs

Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Red

Highest —> Lowest

59

What is the ground state?

when an electron is not excited

60

What is the excited state?

When an electron absorbs energy

61

When does light absorption happen?

When an electron is being excited

62

When does light emission happen?

When an electron is going back to the ground state

63

What are the names of the 4 orbitals?

S,P,D,F

64

How many sub levels are in the S orbital?

1

65

How many sub levels are in the P orbital?

3

66

How many sub levels are in the D orbital?

5

67

How many sub levels are in the F orbital?

7

68

How many electrons are in each orbital sub level?

2 electrons

69

Give an example of electron configuration

Carbon
1s^2 2s^2 2p^2

70

Give an example of a noble gas core or abbreviated electron configuration

Magnesium
[Ne] 3s^2

71

What is light?

a form of energy called electromagnetic radiation

72

What is the speed of light (c)?

3.0 x 10^8 m/s

73

What is the Bohr model?

a model where electrons orbit the nuclear radially as the planets orbit the sun. each orbit is given an integer value of n

74

How is energy dispersed in the Bohr model?

N=1 to N=2 take significantly more energy than any other jump. The jumps take less energy as they move up

75

What is Aufbau's Principle?

electrons fill orbitals starting with the lowest energy orbitals

76

What is the Pauli exclusion principle?

a maximum of two electrons can occupy each orbital and they must have opposite spin
Represented with arrows pointing up and down

77

What is Hund's rule?

electrons are distributed into orbitals of identical energy (same sublevel) in such a way as to give the maximum number of unpaired electrons

78

Define isoelectronic

any species (atom and/or ion) that has the same electron configuration

in general atoms gain or lose electrons to become isoelectronic with its nearest noble gas

79

What is an ionic compound?

a compound where ions are held together by electrostatic forces
ionic bonding is present

80

what are molecular compounds?

a compound where atoms are held together by covalent bonds
the electrons are shared

81

What is the octet rule?

in a lewis dot structure, each element needs to have a full octet

82

What are resonance structures?

When there are multiple correct lewis dot structures for a compound

83

What are the three parent structures for molecular shape?

Linear
Trigonal Planar
Tetrahedral

84

What is the degree angle for a linear structure?

180 degrees

85

what is the degree angle for a trigonal planar structure?

120 degrees

86

what is the degree angle for a tetrahedral structure?

109.5 degrees

87

What is a structure called when a linear parent structure has a lone pair?

bent

88

What is a structure called when a trigonal planar structure has a lone pair?

Trigonal pyramidal

89

Is it possible to a molecular compound to have more than one central atom?

yes

90

What molecules have london dispersion forces

all molecules

91

what molecules have dipole dipole forces?

polar molecules

92

what molecules have hydrogen bonding?

Molecules with H-F, H-O, or H-N bonds