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Flashcards in Chemistry 111 Deck (156)
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1

chemistry

study of matter and its properties, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes

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matter

anything that has mass and volume

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composition

types and amounts of simpler substances that makes it up

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properties

characteristics that give each substance it unique identity

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physical properties

characteristics a substance shows by itself, without changing into or interacting with another substance

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chemical properties

characteristics a substance shows as it changes into or interacts with another substance(s)

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physical change

occurs when a substance alters its physical properties and not its composition

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chemical change

occurs when a substance(s) is converted into a different substance(s)

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solid

fixed shape that conforms to container; particles lie next to each other in a regular, 3D array

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liquid

varying shape that conforms to container, has an upper surface; particles lie close together but move randomly around each other

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gas

varying shape that conforms to container, no upper surface; particles have large distances between them and move randomly throughout container

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energy

ability to do work

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potential energy

energy is due to the position of the object relative to other objects

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kinetic energy

energy due to the motion of the object

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conversion factors

ratios used to express a quantity in different units

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SI units

french "syteme internaional d'unites", seven fundamental units from which other units are derived from

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meter

1m is distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299792458 second

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volume

amount of space any sample matter occupies

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cubic meter

m^3--SI unit; (1L=1dm^3=10^-3m^3)

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mass

quantity of matter an object contains

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kilograms

(kg) SI unit

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density

(d) density equals mass divided by volume (kg/m^3 SI)

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temperature

(t) a measure of how hot or cold one object is relative to another

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heat

the energy that flows from the object with the higher temperature to the object with the lower temperature

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thermometer

a narrow tube containing a fluid that expands when heated

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kelvin

SI unit for temperature

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Kelvin (absolute scale)

same size degree as celsius scale, 1/100 of the difference between freezing and boiling points of water--but has a different zero point (0K=Absolute zero=-273.15degrees Celsius)

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celsius scale

sets water's freezing point at 0 degrees and boiling point at 100 degrees

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second

(s) SI unit, atomic standard (1 second = 9192631770 oscillations of microwave radiation absorbed by gaseous cesium atoms cooled to around 10^-6 K)

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extensive properties

some variables dependent on the amount of substance present