Chemistry Flashcards Preview

Science > Chemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (56):
1

What are elements

Substances that are a.m. e up of one type of atom

2

Properties

Properties determine whether an element is metallic or non metallic

3

Metallic elements

Potassium, sodium, calcium, iron

4

Properties of metallic elements

Shiny, polishes
Good conductors of heat and electricity
Can be bent or hammered
Can be stretched into wires e.g dictile

5

Exapmples of ways the use metallic elements

Tin lining for the roof so are malleable, electrical wiring are ductile, and conduct heat good for pots and pans

6

Non, metallic elements

Have lower melting and boiling points and are solids or gases at room temperature
Bromine is only the one liquid and room temp

7

Examples of Non metallics

Carbon, sulfur, iodine, chlorine

8

Properties of non metallic elements

Dull, not shiny
Do not conduct heat or electricity
Brittle, beard or crumble

9

Chemical symbol for Hydrogen, helium, lithium, berilium

H, He, Li, Be

10

Chemical symbol for boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, Florine

B, C, N, O, F

11

Chemical symbol for Neon, sodium, magnesium, alimunin, silicon

Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si

12

Chemical symbol for Phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine and argon

P, S, Cl, Ar

13

Chemical symbol for potassium and calcium

K and Ca

14

Monatomic elements

Elements that are made up of many individual atoms is known as a monatomic. E.G helium, neon argon

15

Atoms in elements

Elements are made up ofone type of atom and can be arranged in different ways
Single atoms
Clusters of atoms called molecules
Large grid called crystal lattices

16

Molecular elements

Listens of two or more atoms bonded together. All molecules are identical in size, shape and number

17

Molecular formula

Shows what atoms are in a molecule and how many there are of each e.f O2 N2 s8

18

Crystal lattices

Largesse grid like structures that repeat the same arrangement of atoms over and over.
All metallic elements form crystal lattices only a few non metallic elements form lattices

19

Metallic lattices

Atoms in metals form lattices regather than molecules. They can be bent, hammered into sheeren and sreechted into sores

20

Non metallic lattices

Only a few form lattices
E.g silicon.

21

Allotrope

Different forms of the same element e.g carbon. Diamond, charcoal, graphite

22

Compounds

Substances that are made up of more than one type of atom. Each have unique set of properties. Salt, water, candle wax

23

Molecular compounds

All identical in size and shape and have the same number of atoms. Represented using a chemical formula e.g H2O, CO2, CYH12O6

24

Lattice comings

Atoms tightly bonded together. Hard solids at room temperature. E.g beach sand and salt

25

Mixtures

Made up of more than one substance, where the substances are not chemically bonded together mean that they can be easily separated

26

Ueberyday mixtures

Common is solution made up of the dissolving solute e liquid which the solute is mixed into is known as the solvent

27

Alloys

Are mixtures if a metal with other metals or non metals. Important because they often have very different and useful properties. E.g iron is cheep to produce but si soft and rusts

28

Physical change

No new substance is produced during the change. E.g changed a shape or form, expands, contracts, changes state or mixes with a substance

29

Hangeing shape or form

Force is applied to break, bend, stretch, crush, twist or compress

30

Expansion and contraction

Expansion happens when heat is applied, the motion increases so they Seperate, contraction is cooling down a substance, forces of attraction are stronger meaning less space

31

Melting

When a solid is heated enough with will change its state into a liquid

32

Freezing

When a liquid is cooled enough it will form a solid

33

Evaporation

When a liquid is warmed and becomes a gas

34

Condensations

When a gas cools and becomes liquid

35

Dissolving

When solid is dissolved into a liquid, solid is know as the solut and the liquid is known as the solvent

36

Chemical change

Whether a new substance has been formed as a result of the change

37

Identifying chemical changes

Seeing a colour change
Smelling a gas or seeing bubble
Eyeing a new solid form
Change in temperature
Condensation

38

Colour change

New substance produced by chemical change has. Different o what you started with

39

Gas is produced

Observed as bubbles, new smell or smoke

40

Precipice forms

Solid precipitated our of the solution known as the precipitate

41

Energy is produced or absorbed

Relax us heat light or both as result in change of temperature or glow

42

Particle model

Representation of solids liquid and gases helps explain and predict the properties of matter

43

Diffusion

Two liquids are mixed together their particle with diffuse and mix evenly without stirring
Gas particles travel in zig zag
Each particld moves in line until it collided with palette and then changed diirectiom

44

Why are substances different

Because they made hood unique set of characteristics known as properties

45

Examples of chemical reactions

Magnesium oxygen =magnesium oxide
Oxygen + hydrogen = water

46

Combustion

Involves burning with oxygen to release light and heat.Releases so much energy quickly than an explosion occurs

47

Examples of combustion

Hydrogen + oxygen = water Valois
Magnesium + oxefen = carbon dioxide + water gap out

48

Flammability

Described how easily a substance under goes combustion. Substances that don’t burn are non flammable while substances that burn easily are flammable
Sunstsnces that ignite quickly or explosively are highly flammable

49

Respiration

The orocess of obtaining energy form from food
Involves a chemical reaction that convert oxefen and glucose into carbon dioxide

50

Corrosion

That can cause damage to metals
Iron and shell have chemical properties that casue them to react slowly with water and oxefen gas in air. Commonly known as rust

51

Molecules of elements e.g

Oxygen goes O2
Oxygen monoxide O3
Sulfur S8
Nitrogen N2
Hydrogen H2

52

Molecules of compounds e.g

H2O oxygen + hydrogen
CH4 Methane
O2 carbon dioxide
NH3 ammonia
CO carbon monoxide

53

Combustion reaction

Equals a flame
E.g me than + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water

54

Oxidation reactions

Equals no flame
E.g iron + oxygen = iron oxide

55

Qualitative

Made up of atoms of ......

56

Quantitative

Number of atoms of ....
Number of atoms of...