Flashcards in Chemistry and Digestion Deck (40):
Molecule that is composed of similar units
How do simple sugars bind?
Two types of polysacchrides
starch and glycogen
All single carbon hydrogen bonds
solid at room temperature
have a carbon carbon double bond
liquid at room temperature
Use of steriods
How many phosphates do nucleic acids have
Six functions of the digestive system
Layers of the alimentary canal from inside out
made of connective tissue
contains blood vessels and nerves
made of epithelial tissue
responsible for making mucus
made of muscle tissue
provides force for movement
Difference between alimentary canal and accessory organs
Accessory organs do not actually touch the food
mechanical digestion in the mouth
food is cut up by teeth and mixed by the tongue
chemical digestion in the mouth
salivatory glands start bathing food in amylase
breaks down starches
How does the epiglottis prevent food from entering the trachea?
Larynx rises to allow the epiglottis to cover its opening
Esophagus's main function
Transports food from the mouth to the stomach
Prevents backflow of food by closing once food is delivered to the stomach
Heartburn caused if food backflows
How is the alimentary canal modified in the stomach?
Mucosa is folded into rugae
Muscularis gains a 3rd layer
What role does mucosa play in the stomach
Produces gastic juice
What does gastric juice contain?
HCL (hydrochloric acid)
Function of the stomach's high acidity?
Activates pepsinogen to pepsin which is the active protein digesting enzyme
Primary digestion in the stomach
Some proteins are chemically digested
First part of the small intestine
carries out more chemical digestion
Where does bile and pancreatic juice go to?
Which hormones control the pancreas and liver's injection into the duodenum?
Secretin and CCK (stimulates fate digestion)
What does pancreatic juice contain?
Amylase, protease, lipase
What does bicarbonate do?
Neutralizes stomach acid
Produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder
Emuslifies fats (breaks large fats into smaller ones)
Jejunum and Ilium
How is the alimentary canal specialized in the ilium and jejunum?
Gain fingerlike projections called villi
Villi contain blood vessels and lymph vessels
Villi increase surface area for digestion
What two hormones does the pancreas produce?
Glucagon and insulin
Raises blood sugar levels
without it the brain cannot function, pass out
Decreases blood sugar levels
first part of the large intestines
appendix (vestigal) is located here
Function of the colon
processes waste products
removes excess water
How is the alimentary canal modified in the large intestines?
Goblin cells produce mucus to help stool move through the large intestine
type I versus type II diabetes
Type I is genetic
Type II is due to poor exercise