Chemistry and Digestion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemistry and Digestion Deck (40):
1

Polymer

Molecule that is composed of similar units

2

How do simple sugars bind?

Dehydration synthesis

loose water

3

Two types of polysacchrides

starch and glycogen

4

Saturated fat

All single carbon hydrogen bonds

solid at room temperature

5

Unsaturated fat

have a carbon carbon double bond

liquid at room temperature

6

Use of steriods

hormones

7

How many phosphates do nucleic acids have

One

8

Six functions of the digestive system

Ingestion

Movement

Digestion (mechanical)

Digestion (chemical)

Absorption

Defecation

9

Layers of the alimentary canal from inside out

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis

Serosa

10

Submucosa

made of connective tissue

contains blood vessels and nerves

11

Mucosa

made of epithelial tissue

responsible for making mucus

12

Muscularius

made of muscle tissue

provides force for movement

13

Accessory organs

Liver

gall bladder

pancreas

14

Difference between alimentary canal and accessory organs

Accessory organs do not actually touch the food

15

mechanical digestion in the mouth

food is cut up by teeth and mixed by the tongue

16

chemical digestion in the mouth

salivatory glands start bathing food in amylase

breaks down starches

17

How does the epiglottis prevent food from entering the trachea?

Larynx rises to allow the epiglottis to cover its opening

18

Esophagus's main function

Transports food from the mouth to the stomach

19

Cardioesophagal sphincter

Muscle valve

Prevents backflow of food by closing once food is delivered to the stomach

Heartburn caused if food backflows

20

How is the alimentary canal modified in the stomach?

Mucosa is folded into rugae

Muscularis gains a 3rd layer

21

What role does mucosa play in the stomach

Produces gastic juice

22

What does gastric juice contain?

HCL (hydrochloric acid)

Protease

Pepsinogen

Gastrin (hormone)

23

Function of the stomach's high acidity?

Activates pepsinogen to pepsin which is the active protein digesting enzyme

24

Primary digestion in the stomach

Mechanical digestion

Some proteins are chemically digested

25

Duodenum

First part of the small intestine

carries out more chemical digestion

26

Where does bile and pancreatic juice go to?

The duodenum

27

Which hormones control the pancreas and liver's injection into the duodenum?

Secretin and CCK (stimulates fate digestion)

28

What does pancreatic juice contain?

Amylase, protease, lipase

Bicarbonate

29

What does bicarbonate do?

Neutralizes stomach acid

30

Bile

Produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder

Emuslifies fats (breaks large fats into smaller ones)

31

Jejunum and Ilium

Absorb food

32

How is the alimentary canal specialized in the ilium and jejunum?

Gain fingerlike projections called villi

Villi contain blood vessels and lymph vessels

Villi increase surface area for digestion

33

What two hormones does the pancreas produce?

Glucagon and insulin

34

Glucagon

Raises blood sugar levels

without it the brain cannot function, pass out

35

Insulin

Decreases blood sugar levels

36

Cecum

first part of the large intestines

appendix (vestigal) is located here

37

Function of the colon

processes waste products

removes excess water

38

How is the alimentary canal modified in the large intestines?

Goblin cells produce mucus to help stool move through the large intestine

39

type I versus type II diabetes

Type I is genetic

Type II is due to poor exercise

40

Diarrhea

primary complication is dehydration because you loose so much water

pepto-bismol helps cure