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Flashcards in Chemistry in Society Deck (24):
1

what can slag be used for

foundation for buildings or roads

2

list three useful properties of aluminum

has a low density
resistant to corrosion because of its passive oxide coating
relatively strong when alloyed

3

list three uses of aluminum

kitchen foil
drink cans
high voltage electricity cables

4

what do you call iron that comes out of a blast furnace, and why is it useless

pig iron
96% iron because of impurities, making it brittle and soft

5

what can low carbon steel be used for

soft and ductile, used for car body manufacture

6

what can high carbon steel be used for

hard, used for knives and tools

7

what can stainless steel be used for and why

cutlery because it doesn't rust

8

what is the use of refinery gases

bottled gas eg camping gas

9

what is the use of gasoline

petrol for motor vehicles

10

what is the use of kerosene

jet fuel

11

what is the use of diesel oil

diesel fuel for cars

12

what is the use of fuel oil

oil powered central heating system

13

what is the use of bitumen

road making

14

describe the trend in boiling point and viscosity of the main fractions

with increasing boiling point....

• boiling point increases - larger intermolecular attractions, more energy needed to separate hydrocarbon molecules
• liquids become less volatile - larger molecules evaporate more slowly because there are stronger intermolecular attractions
• liquids are more viscous - greater intermolecular attractions
• burn less easily

15

what does the high temperature in car engines allow to happen?

nitrogen and oxygen from the air react, form nitrogen oxides
react with hydrocarbons to form PHOTOCHEMICAL smog
leads to poor air quality and respiratory diseases

16

what conditions are needed for cracking

600-700C, silica or alumina catalyst

17

what is the use of polypropene

ropes, plastic crates

18

what is the use of polychloroethene

drainpipes, clothing, electrical insulation

19

why are addition polymers hard to dispose of

they are inert due to the strength of the c-c bonds; not biodegradable

20

describe the reactions taking place in the blast furnace

1. Coke burns in a blast of hot air, CO2 is formed and lots of heat
C+O2 --> CO2
2. The hot CO2 rises up in the furnace and reacts with more coke to form carbon monoxide
CO2+C--> 2CO
3. Carbon monoxide is the main reducing agent for removing oxygen from the iron oxide, forming molten iron that runs to the bottom of the furnace
Fe2O3 + 3CO --> 2Fe+3CO2
4. Limestone decomposed to calcium oxide and reacts with acidic impurities like sand and clay, to form slag. This floats on the iron as it is less dense
CaCO3--> CaO + CO2
CaO + SiO2 --> CaSiO3

21

list three uses of chlorine

making bleach;
sterilizing drinking water;
making hydrochloric acid

22

list three uses of sodium hydroxide

making bleach;
making soap;
making paper

23

list three uses of chlorine

making bleach;
sterilizing drinking water;
making hydrochloric acid

24

list three uses of sodium hydroxide

making bleach;
making soap;
making paper